2017”N02ŒŽ11“ú

‰pŒê‹³ˆç‚É‚¨‚¯‚é‰pŒêŽj‚ÌŒø—p




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‰pŒê‹³ˆç‚É‚¨‚¯‚é‰pŒêŽj‚ÌŒø—p‚ɂ‚¢‚āANorbert Schmitt • Richard Marsden, Why Is English Like That?FHistorical answers to hard ELT questionsiThe University of Michigan Press, 2006, p.úDj‚æ‚è”õ–Y‚Ì‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—¯‚ß‚Ä‚¨‚«‚Ü‚·B


Perhaps you have found yourself confronted by awkward questions from your students such as:

œ Why is night spelled with gh?
i’†—ªj
œ Why does English have so many synonyms like intelligent, clever, astute, and bright?

You may have found yourself at a loss for satisfactory responses, and you may have had to provide vague answers, such as "That's just the way it is." Luckily, there are historical answers to these questions.i’†—ªj

We believe students long for good explanations for these quirks and exceptions [= the quirks and exceptions in English that can be explained on a historical basis] and appreciate it if you can give them concrete reasons for their existence. Pedagogically, the explanations are not guaranteed to help your students learn English any faster, but at a minimum, we feel that they can help alleviate their frustration with some of the seemingly unreasonable aspects of the language, and, as a result, maintain their motivation and interest. At best, the explanations may help your students to a more informed understanding of the English system and may actually facilitate their learning.



i’Ç‹Lj

“n•”¸ˆêE]“¡—T”VE•½‰ªOÍwƒOƒ[ƒoƒ‹EƒGƒŠ[ƒg‹³ˆçxiPHPŒ¤‹†ŠA2016”NApp.115-20jŠŽûA“Á•Ê“C’kq‹³ˆçE—¯Šw‚̈Ӗ¡‚ðl‚¦‚ér‚æ‚èA•½‰ªOÍæ¶i´•—’†ŠwZE‚“™ŠwZ•›Z’·j‚̌䔭Œ¾‚ðˆø‚«‚Ü‚·B


ƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚ʼnpŒê‚ðƒlƒCƒeƒBƒu‚ɏK‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Æ‚«‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚Å‚·B

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i’†—ªj

‚·‚é‚ƁA”Þ‚Í”¼‚΂ ‚«‚ꂽ‚悤‚É‚±‚¤“š‚¦‚Ü‚µ‚½B

uŒN‚Í‘å‚«‚ȊԈႢ‚ð‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚悤‚¾B¡‚È‚çŠÔ‚ɍ‡‚¤‚æBK‚¢ŒN‚̓AƒƒŠƒJ‚É—ˆ‚½‚΂©‚肾‚µA‚»‚ñ‚ȃoƒJ‚ȍl‚¦‚Í‘‚­–Y‚ê‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¢‚È‚³‚¢vB‚³‚ç‚É‚±‚¤‘±‚¯‚Ü‚µ‚½Bu‚Ç‚¤‚µ‚Ä‹ó‚͐‚¢‚ñ‚¾‚¢Hv—¼˜r‚ð‚µ‚©‚½‚È‚³‚»‚¤‚ɍL‚°‚È‚ª‚çAu“¯‚¶‚±‚Æ‚¾‚æBà–¾‚È‚ñ‚Ä‚Å‚«‚È‚¢vB‚»‚¤Œ¾‚Á‚Ęb‚͏I‚í‚è‚Ü‚µ‚½B

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i’†—ªj

Ž„‚É‚µ‚Ä‚Ý‚ê‚΁A‰pŒê‚ð‚æ‚藝‰ð‚·‚邽‚߂ɂ́AŠÛˆÃ‹L‚Å‚È‚­A­‚µ‚Å‚àƒlƒCƒeƒBƒu‚É‹ß‚¢Š´Šo‚ÅŒ¾—t‚ÌŽ‚ƒjƒ…ƒAƒ“ƒX‚ð‚‚©‚Þ‚±‚Æ‚ª•K—v‚¾‚ƍl‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½‚©‚ç‚Å‚·B

i’†—ªj

¡‚Ì“ú–{‚̎Љï‚ʼnpŒê‚ðK“¾‚·‚é‚ɂ́A‚»‚̉pŒê‚ð‹³‚¦‚鑤‚̐lŠÔ‚ª‚æ‚­—‰ð‚µA‚»‚Ì—‰ð‚ð[‚­Šš‚ݍӂ¢‚Ä—^‚¦‚邱‚ƁBi’†—ªj

‹³‚¦‚鑤‚ª‰pŒê‚ð‚æ‚­•×‹­‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚±‚»‚ªA“ú–{‚̉pŒê‹³ˆç‚Ì—v‚Æ‚È‚è‚Ü‚·Bi’†—ªj‚ ‚Ü‚·‚Æ‚±‚ë‚È‚­•ªÍ‚µA•×‹­‚µAŽ©M‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‹³‚¦‚é‚ׂ«‚Å‚·Bi’†—ªj

¶“k‚ª‹^–â‚ÉŽv‚Á‚½‚±‚ƁA‹»–¡‚ðŽ‚Á‚½‚±‚Ƃɐ^•‚ÉŒü‚«‚ ‚¢A‚»‚ê‚ɉž‚¦A—‰ð‚Æ‹»–¡‚ðŽ‚½‚¹‚é‚Ì‚ªA‹³Žt‚Ì‘å‚«‚È–ðŠ„‚¾‚ÆŽv‚¤‚Ì‚Å‚·B



posted by Îè —zˆê at 20:33 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2015”N02ŒŽ07“ú

ŽžEðŒ‚Ì•›ŽŒß‚É‚¨‚¯‚é will ‚Ì•sŽg—p‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä | —ðŽj“IŠÏ“_‚©‚ç


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Œcœä‘åŠw‚Ì–x“c—²ˆêæ¶‚ª‰^‰c‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éuhellog`‰pŒêŽjƒuƒƒOv‚Í“ú ‚©‚瑽‚­‚ðŠw‚΂¹‚Ä‚¢‚½‚¾‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚éƒEƒFƒuƒTƒCƒg‚Å‚·B

ŽžEðŒ‚Ì•›ŽŒß‚É‚¨‚¯‚é will ‚Ì•sŽg—p‚ɂ‚¢‚āA‚»‚ÌŽ¿‹^‰ž“š—“‚Å‚Ì‚â‚è‚Æ‚è‚É‹»–¡‚ðˆø‚©‚ê‚Ü‚µ‚½B

”õ–Y‚Ì‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—¯‚ß‚Ä‚¨‚«‚Ü‚·B


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posted by Îè —zˆê at 11:59 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2014”N08ŒŽ11“ú

ŽO’PŒ»‚Ì s ‚Í‚È‚º•t‚¯‚é


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ŽåŒê‚ªŽOlÌ’P”Œ»Ý‚ÌŽž‚Í‚È‚º“®ŽŒ‚É s ‚ð•t‚¯‚é‚Ì‚©A‚ɂ‚¢‚āAwŠâè–¯•½•¶W|‰pŒê‚ЂƂ·‚¶‚̐¶ŠUxiŒ¤‹†ŽÐA1985”NAp.427j‚æ‚è”õ–Y‚Ì‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—¯‚ß‚Ä‚¨‚«‚Ü‚·B


–¼ŽŒ‚̏ꍇ s ‚Í pl. ‚ðŽ¦‚·‚̂ɁA“®ŽŒ‚̏ꍇ s ‚ª‚©‚¦‚Á‚Ä sing. ‚ðŽ¦‚·‚Ì‚Í‚È‚º‚©‚Æ•sR‚ðŽ‚½‚ê‚邪A‰½‚Æà–¾‚·‚ׂ«‚©i’†—ªj‚±‚ê‚͉pŒêŽj‚ðŽ‚¿o‚·ˆÈŠO‚Í‚È‚¢‚ªAŒÃ‚¢‚Æ‚±‚ë‚Å‚Í“®ŽŒ‚Ì pl. ‚É‚à -es, -eth, -en ‚ð—p‚¢‚½‚à‚Ì‚ªA¡‚ÍŠF’E—Ž‚µ‚ÄŽOlÌ’P”‚É‚¾‚¯Žc‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚¾‚ÆŠÈ’P‚ÉŒ¾‚Á‚Ä‚æ‚¢‚Å‚µ‚傤B


i’Ç‹Lj

Œcœä‘åŠw‚Ì–x“c—²ˆêæ¶‚ª‰^‰c‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éuhellog`‰pŒêŽjƒuƒƒOv‚ł́AˆÈ‰º‚Ì‹LŽ–‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ĉµ‚í‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

œ ‚È‚º3’PŒ»‚Ì -s ‚ª‚‚­‚Ì‚©H


posted by Îè —zˆê at 11:08 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2013”N08ŒŽ21“ú

women ‚É‚¨‚¯‚é”­‰¹‚Æ’ÔŽš‚̘¨—£


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women ‚É‚¨‚¯‚é”­‰¹‚Æ’ÔŽš‚̘¨—£‚ɂ‚¢‚āA

r–؈ê—Y ŠÄCE…’¹Šì‹ªE•Ä‘qã^ ’˜w’†‰pŒê‚̏‰•à|‰pŒêŠw“ü–åuÀE‘æ‚TŠªxi‰p’ªŽÐƒtƒFƒjƒbƒNƒXA1997”NAp.124j‚æ‚è”õ–Y‚Ì‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—¯‚ß‚Ä‚¨‚«‚Ü‚·Bi‰ºü•”‚ÍŒ»•MŽÒ‚É‚æ‚éBj


OE ‚Å‚Í’P” wīfmann, •¡” wīfmenn ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚ªA‚¢‚¸‚ê‚à‹ts“¯‰»iregressive assimilationj|Œã‘±‰¹ mmn ‚̉e‹¿‚É‚æ‚è mfn ➔ mmn|‚É‚æ‚èAwimman, wimmen ‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½BME ‚É‚Í‚¢‚é‚ƁA‘OŽÒ‚͌ꓪ‚Ì mwn ‚̉e‹¿‚Å min ‚ª mun ‚Æ‚¢‚¤‰~O•ê‰¹‚֕ω»‚µ‚½B‚±‚Ì mun ‚̓tƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒê‚̉e‹¿‚Å ƒo„ ‚Æ’Ô‚ç‚êAwoman ‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½B‚µ‚©‚µA•¡”Œ`‚Í mwn ‚̉e‹¿‚ð‚¤‚¯‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚̂ŁAmin ‚Ì‚Ü‚Ü•Û‚½‚ꂽ‚ªA’ÔŽš‚¾‚¯‚Í’P”Œ`‚̉e‹¿‚ð‚¤‚¯‚Ä women ‚É•Ï‚¦‚ç‚ꂽB


i’Ç‹Lj

‰ºü•”‚ɂ‚¢‚āA–x“c—²ˆêæ¶‚É‚æ‚鎟‚Ì‹LŽ–‚Í’†‰pŒêŠú‚ÌŽÊŽš¶‚É‚æ‚é minim avoidance ‚É‚æ‚é‚ÆŽw“E‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

œ woman ‚Ì”­‰¹‚Æ’ÔŽš


posted by Îè —zˆê at 14:40 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2013”N07ŒŽ26“ú

Žåß‚É‚¨‚¯‚鉼’è–@‚ÌŽg—piŠè–]‚ð•\‚·ê‡j


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Ž„‚½‚¿‚ªS‚Ì’†‚ŁAŒ’NEK•ŸE¬Œ÷‚ȂǁA‹FŠè‚·‚鎖•¿‚ðŒ¾‚¢•\‚·•¶‚ð‹FŠè•¶‚ƌĂñ‚Å‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‹FŠè•¶‚͌Õ¶‘̂ŁA“¯—l‚Ì“à—e‚Í hope ‚â wish ‚ð—p‚¢‚Ä•\Œ»‚·‚é‚Ì‚ªŒ»Ý‚Å‚ÍŽ©‘R‚Å‚·B

Œˆ‚܂蕶‹å‚ðœ‚«A“úí—pŒê‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚Í‘½‚­—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚·‚ªA

‰¼’è–@‚Ì‘ÌŒn‚Ì—‰ð‚̐[‰»‚ƌ¢‰pŒê‚̓ljð‚Ì•Ö‹X‚Ì‚½‚߁A

ŒÅ’肵‚½•\Œ»‚Å‚ ‚育‚­“ÁŽê‚ÈŒ^‚Ì•\Œ»‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚¨’f‚肵‚½ã‚Å

‹FŠè•¶‚ð‚±‚±‚ňµ‚¤‚±‚Æ‚É‚µ‚Ü‚·B

–

‹FŠè•¶‚Í‚QŽí—Þ‚É‘å•Ê‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚Ü‚·B

ˆê‚‚͌»Ý‚Ü‚½‚Í–¢—ˆ‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ä

u‚±‚¤‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚Ù‚µ‚¢v

‚̈ӂð•\‚·‚à‚̂ŁA

‚à‚¤ˆê‚‚͌»Ý‚Ü‚½‚͉ߋŽ‚ÌŽ–ŽÀ‚É”½‚µA

u‚±‚¤‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚Ù‚µ‚©‚Á‚½‚̂Ɂv

‚̈ӂð•\‚·‚à‚Ì‚Å‚·B

‚»‚µ‚āA‚¢‚¸‚ê‚̏ꍇ‚àAS‚Ì’†‚ÌŽ–•¿i‹F‚è‚̐Sj‚Ì•\–¾‚Å‚ ‚èA

‚»‚ê‚𕶖@ã‚Å–¾‚ç‚©‚ÉŽ¦‚·‚½‚ß‚É

“®ŽŒ‚͉¼’è–@‚ð—p‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Å‚·‚ˁB

‚Ü‚½A‚ӂ‚¤A‘‚«Œ¾—t‚ł́A•¶––‚É g!h ‚ð•t‚¯‚Ü‚·B

–

‚Ü‚¸‚́AŒ»Ý‚Ü‚½‚Í–¢—ˆ‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚āu‚Ђ½‚·‚ç‚ÈŠè‚¢v‚ð•\‚·ê‡‚©‚猩‚Ä‚Ý‚Ü‚µ‚傤B

‚±‚̏ꍇ‚́A‚ӂ‚¤AŽåŒê‚𕶓ª‚É—§‚ĂāA‰¼’è–@Œ»Ý‚Ì“®ŽŒ‚ðqŒê‚ɐ˜‚¦‚Ä•\‚µ‚Ü‚·B

Œ»‘ã‰pŒê‚Å‚Í


God save the Queen!
i_—l‚ª—‰¤‚ðŽç‚点‚½‚Ü‚í‚ñ‚±‚Æ‚ðIj

Long live the Queen!
i—‰¤•Ã‰º‚ª’·¶‚«‚³‚ê‚ñ‚±‚Æ‚ðIj



‚̂悤‚Ȑ¬‹å‚É‚Ì‚ÝŽc‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚āA

ˆê”ʂɂ͉¼’è–@‚Ì‘ã—p‚Æ‚µ‚ď•“®ŽŒ‚Ì may ‚ð—p‚¢‚Ü‚·B


May peace prevail on Earth!
i¢ŠE‚ª•½˜a‚Å‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·‚悤‚Ɂj

May you find true happiness in your life together!
i‚¨‚Ó‚½‚è‚̐l¶‚É‚Ù‚ñ‚Æ‚¤‚Ì‚µ‚ ‚킹‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·‚悤‚Ɂj



‚±‚̂悤‚ɁA‚±‚̏ꍇAmay ‚Í‚¢‚‚àŽåŒê‚æ‚è‚à‘O‚É—§‚¿‚Ü‚·B

ŽŸ‚Í Anthony Trollopei1815–82j‚̍ì•iiOrley Farmj‚ÉŒ©‚ç‚ê‚é—¼Œ`•¹—p‚Ì—á‚Å‚·B


God help her; May God help her!

–

‘±‚¢‚āAŒ»Ý‚Ü‚½‚͉ߋŽ‚ÌŽ–ŽÀ‚É”½‚µAu‚±‚¤‚ ‚Á‚Ä‚Ù‚µ‚©‚Á‚½‚̂Ɂv‚Æ‚¢‚¤Žv‚¢‚ð•\‚·ê‡‚ðŒ©‚Ä‚Ý‚Ü‚µ‚傤B

‚±‚̏ꍇAŒ»Ý‚Å‚Í I wish ‚È‚Ç‚Å•¶‚ðØ‚èo‚·‚킯‚Å‚·‚ªA

­‚µŒÃ‚¢‰pŒê‚Å‚·‚ƁA•¶“ª‚É


Wouldithatj

Wish to Godithatj



‚È‚Ç‚ð’u‚«A

Œã‘±‚·‚éß‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA

Œ»Ý‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é“à—e‚Å‚ ‚ê‚Ή¼’è–@‰ß‹Ž‚ðA

‰ß‹Ž‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é“à—e‚Å‚ ‚ê‚Ή¼’è–@‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹‚ð

qŒê‚É—p‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·B


Would that I had a brother or sister!
iŒZ’í‚âŽo–…‚ª‚¢‚½‚ç‚ÆŽv‚¤j

Wish to God that I had never said that!
iŽ„‚Í‚»‚ñ‚È‚±‚Æ‚ðŒ¾‚í‚È‚¯‚ê‚΂悩‚Á‚½‚ÆŒã‰÷‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·j



‚È‚¨A”@ã‚̏ꍇ‚É‚¨‚¯‚é Would, Wish ‚Í I would, I wish ‚̈Ӗ¡‚ŁA

would ‚Í‚»‚ꎩgŠù‚ɉ¼’è–@‚Å‚ ‚èA

would rather ‚Ì would ‚Æ“¯‚¶B

ŒÃŒê‚Łu–]‚ށA—~‚·‚év‚ðˆÓ–¡‚·‚é“®ŽŒ will ‚̉¼’è–@‰ß‹Ž‚È‚Ì‚Å‚·‚ˁB


i’Ç‹L‚Pj

–{‹LŽ–‚ÌŽ·•M‚ɍۂµA×]ˆí‹Lw‰p•¶–@”Ę_xiŽÂè‘—сA1993”NAp.158-60j‚ðŽQÆ‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½B


i’Ç‹L‚Qj

‘å’ˍ‚MwƒVƒFƒCƒNƒXƒsƒA‹y¹‘‚̉pŒêxiŒ¤‹†ŽÐA1967”NAp.124j‚æ‚èˆø‚«‚Ü‚·BiŠ¿Žš‚͐VŽš‘̂ɁA‰¼–¼‚ÍŒ»‘㉼–¼Œ­‚¢‚ɉü‚ß‚Ä‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·Bj

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‚È‚¨A•¶’†‚́u–ŽÀ–@v‚Ƃ́u’¼à–@v‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚ðŽw‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B


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ˆÀ“¡’å—YwŒ»‘ã‰p•¶–@u‹`xiŠJ‘ñŽÐA2005”NAp.365j‚Í

•·‚«Žè‚É•s—˜‰v‚É‚È‚é‹FŠè‚́uŽôæfE‚Ì‚Ì‚µ‚èv‚É“]Š·‚·‚é

‚Æ‚µ‚Ä Damn you! ‚â Fuck you! ‚È‚Ç‚ð—Ꭶ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‚Ü‚½AˆÀ“¡’å—Yw‰p•¶–@‚ð’T‚éxiŠJ‘ñŽÐA2007”NAp.99j‚É‚àŒ¾‹y‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·B


posted by Îè —zˆê at 14:34 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

ˆø—p‚Ì”wŒi‚É‚ ‚錾Œêó‹µ


General Prologue.JPG

iƒNƒŠƒbƒN‚·‚é‚ÆŠg‘債‚Ü‚·j



wƒJƒ“ƒ^ƒxƒŠ[•¨ŒêxiThe Canterbury Tales, mainly 1387-88j‚̃vƒƒ[ƒO‚ÉŽŸ‚̈êß‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·BiÙ–ó‚ð•t‚µ‚Ü‚·Bj


And Frenssh she spak ful faire and fetisly,
After the scole of Stratford atte Bowe,
For Frenssh of Parys was to hire unknowe.

‚»‚µ‚Ĕޏ—‚̓tƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒê‚ðŽÀ‚É‚¤‚Ü‚­A‚Ü‚½—D‰ë‚ɘb‚µ‚½A
Stratford-at-Bow ‚Ì—¬‹V‚ɏ]‚Á‚āA
‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚Ì‚àAƒpƒŠ‚̃tƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒê‚͔ޏ—‚É’m‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Ì‚¾‚©‚çB



prioress ‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚ð•`ŽÊ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éƒV[ƒ“‚Å‚·‚ªA

”ޏ—‚̘b‚·uStratford-at-Bow ‚Ì—¬‹V‚ɏ]‚Áv‚½ƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒê‚Æ‚Í

Anglo-NormaniNorman French, Anglo-FrenchjA‚·‚È‚í‚¿‰p‘•—‚̃tƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒê‚ðŽw‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

Norman Conquesti1066”NjˆÈ—ˆA‰p‘‚̏㗬ŠK‹‰‚Ì‘æˆê‚Ì‚±‚Ƃ΂̓tƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒê‚Å‚µ‚½‚ªA

‚»‚ê‚Í Central FrenchA‚·‚È‚í‚¿ƒpƒŠ‚𒆐S‚Æ‚µ‚Ęb‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚鏃ˆ‚̃tƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒê‚Å‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚·‚ˁB

ã‚̈êß‚́ACentral French ‚ð’m‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é Chaucer ‚ª“s‰ï‚Ì‚±‚Ƃ΂ł͂Ȃ­‚Ä“cŽÉ‚Ì•ûŒ¾iAnglo-Frenchj‚ð˜b‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éŽÒ‚ð”ç“÷‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éê–Ê‚È‚Ì‚Å‚·B

–

ˆÈ‰º‚ÉŒêŠw–Ê‚©‚ç‚̉ðà‚ð•t‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚«‚Ü‚·B

¡ spak ‚ÍŒ»‘ã‰pŒê‚É’€Œê–ó‚·‚ê‚Î spoke ‚Å‚·Bspeak ‚̉ߋŽŒ`‚Å‚·‚ªAŽÀ‚Í‚±‚Ì•û‚ª³‚µ‚¢ŒÃŒ`‚ð“`‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·BŒ»s‚Ì spoke ‚͉ߋŽ•ªŽŒ‚̉e‹¿‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä‚Å‚«‚½‚à‚Ì‚È‚Ì‚Å‚·‚ˁB—Þ—á‚É draveidrovej, tareitorej, bareiborej, wareiworej‚È‚Ç‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·B‚È‚¨A¹‘‚É‚à“¯‚¶Œ`‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ê‚Ü‚·BˆÈãA‘å’ˍ‚MwƒVƒFƒCƒNƒXƒsƒA‹y¹‘‚̉pŒêxiŒ¤‹†ŽÐA1967”NApp.110-1j‚ÉŠî‚¢‚Ä‹L‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½B

¡ ful faire and fetisly ‚ÍŒ»‘ã‰pŒê‚É’€Œê–ó‚·‚ê‚Î fully well and elegantly ‚Å‚·B“–Žž‚Í -ly ‚Ì‘¼A-e ‚à•›ŽŒŒê”ö‚È‚Ì‚Å‚µ‚½B‚È‚¨AŽ›àV–F—Y •Òw‰pŒêŒêŒ¹Ž«“Tikü”ŁjxiŒ¤‹†ŽÐA1999”Nj‚Ì fetish ‚̍€ip.495j‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A

Œ»Ý”pŒê‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é☨featousiƒME fetisjuI‚݂ɍì‚ç‚ꂽA—§”h‚ȁv‚Í OF faitis ‚©‚ç‚ÌŽØ“üŒê‚ŁAŒ»Ý‚Å‚à•ûŒ¾‚É featish elegant, pretty good ‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽc‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

‚Æ‚Ì‚±‚ƁBŒÃŒê‚Ì feati“K“–‚ȁA‚Ó‚³‚킵‚¢GŽèÛ‚Ì‚¢‚¢AI–­‚ȁA‚¤‚Ü‚¢j‚Æ‚àŠÖ˜A‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·B

¡ scole ‚ÍŒ»‘ã‰pŒê‚É’€Œê–ó‚·‚ê‚Î schooli—¬‹VA—¬”hj‚Å‚·B

¡ Stratford atte Bowe ‚ÍŒ»‘ã‰pŒê‚É’€Œê–ó‚·‚ê‚Î Stratford-at-Bow ‚Å‚·Batte ‚Í at theiӕt þej‚̂‚¸‚Ü‚Á‚Ä‚Å‚«‚½‚à‚Ì‚Å‚·B‚¿‚Ȃ݂ɁA‚±‚ꂪ¡“ú‚Ì at best ‚È‚Ç‚Ì at ‚Ì‚à‚Æ‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B‚±‚Ì at ‚É‚Í the ‚ª‚·‚Å‚ÉŠÜ‚Ü‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Å‚·‚ªA‚»‚ꂪ–Y‚ê‚ç‚ê‚Ä at the best ‚È‚Ç‚Æ‚¢‚¤•\Œ»‚ª‚³‚ç‚É‘¢‚ç‚ꂽ‚킯‚Å‚·B

¡ hir ‚ÍŒ»‘ã‰pŒê‚É’€Œê–ó‚·‚ê‚Î her ‚Å‚·B

¡ unknowe ‚ÍŒ»‘ã‰pŒê‚É’€Œê–ó‚·‚ê‚Î unknown ‚Å‚·B


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ˆø—p‚́wƒJƒ“ƒ^ƒxƒŠ[•¨Œêx‚Ì–{•¶‚Í‘åŽRrˆêwƒJƒ“ƒ^ƒxƒŠ[•¨ŒêEƒvƒƒ[ƒOxiŽÂè‘—сA1931”NApp.5-6ill.124-6jj‚æ‚ès‚¢‚Ü‚µ‚½B

i’Ç‹L‚Qj

Œcœä‘åŠw‚Ì–x“c—²ˆêæ¶‚̉^‰c‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éƒuƒƒO‚ŁAˆø—p‚Ì”wŒi‚É‚ ‚錾Œêó‹µ‚ɑ΂·‚éÄ•]‰¿‚ðŽå’£‚·‚éà‚ªÐ‰î‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

œ Prioress ‚Ì Anglo-French ‚Ì’nˆÊ‚Í‚»‚ê‚Ù‚Ç’á‚­‚È‚©‚Á‚½



posted by Îè —zˆê at 10:46 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

’†¢ˆÈ—ˆ‚́A•¶ÍŒêEŠwpŒê‚Æ‚µ‚Ẵ‰ƒeƒ“Œê‚̈ʒui‚ƍ‘Œê‚ɑ΂·‚é—ò“™Š´j


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’†¢ˆÈ—ˆ‚́A•¶ÍŒêEŠwpŒê‚Æ‚µ‚Ẵ‰ƒeƒ“Œê‚̈ʒu‚́A‹ß‘ã‰pŒê‚̏‰Šú‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚àˆø‚«‘±‚¢‚ÄŒ©‚ç‚ê‚Ü‚µ‚½B

Restoration Šúi1660-1700j‚ÌŒQ¬Žl‚Å‚ ‚é Edmund Walleri1605-1687j‚Í

1664”N‚ÉŒjŠ¥Žl‚Ì Dryden ‚̉ߏ܂𓾂čD•]‚𔎂µ‚½l•¨‚Å‚·‚ªA

ŽŸ‚̂悤‚Ȉêß‚ðŽc‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‚±‚̈êß‚́A‚±‚̊Ԃ̏Á‘§‚𕨌ê‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·BiÙ–ó‚ð•t‚µ‚Ü‚·Bj


But who can hope his lines should long
Last in a daily changing tongue?
While they are new, envy prevails;
And as that dies, our language fails.
Poets who lasting marble seek,
Must carve in Latin, or Greek;
We write in sand, our language grows,
And, like the tide, our work o'erflows.

“úX‚Ɉڂè‚ä‚­Œ¾‚Ì—t‚ɁA‰Ì‚Ì’²‚ׂª‚Æ‚±‚µ‚¦‚É
’·‚炦‚悤‚Ƃ́A’N‚É‚à–]‚Þ‚±‚Æ‚Í‚Å‚«‚È‚¢B
‰Ì‚Ì’²‚ׂªV‚µ‚¢‚¤‚¿‚́A“i‚Ý‚ª‰QŠª‚­B
“i‚Ý‚ªÁ‚¦‚Ä‚àA‚킪Œ¾‚Ì—t‚Í•ö‚ê‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤B
’·‚­‚à‚‘嗝Î‚ð‹‚ß‚éŽl‚½‚¿‚́A
ƒ‰ƒeƒ“Œê‚©ƒMƒŠƒVƒƒŒê‚ŏ‘‚©‚˂΂Ȃç‚ʁB
‚í‚ê‚í‚ê‚́A^»‚ÉŽš‚ð‘‚«AŒ¾‚Ì—t‚ª‘‚¹‚Î
ã‚°’ª‚Ì”@‚­A‚킪‰Ì‚𗬂µ•ö‚µ‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤B



‚±‚̂悤‚ɁA•Ï‰»‚ÌŒƒ‚µ‚¢‘Œê‚ł́A‚¹‚Á‚©‚­Ž‚ð‘‚¢‚Ä‚àŒã¢‚Å“Ç‚Ü‚ê‚È‚­‚È‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤‚©‚çA

‚Þ‚µ‚냉ƒeƒ“EƒMƒŠƒVƒƒ‚̌ÓTŒê‚ŏ‘‚¢‚½•û‚ª‚æ‚¢‚Æà‚­‚킯‚Å‚·‚ˁB

’†¢ˆÈ—ˆ‚́A•¶ÍŒêEŠwpŒê‚Æ‚µ‚Ẵ‰ƒeƒ“Œê‚̈ʒu‚ª‚±‚ÌŽ‚É’[“I‚É”½‰f‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ÆŒ¾‚¦‚Ü‚·B



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“¯—l‚ÌŠë‹@ˆÓŽ¯‚́A‰p‘‚ÌŽl Alexander Popei1688-1744j‚É‚æ‚鎟‚̈êß‚É‚àŒ©‚ç‚ê‚Ü‚·BiÙ–ó‚ð•t‚µ‚Ü‚·Bj


Our sons their fathers' failing language see,
And such as Chaucer is, shall Dryden be.

‚¹‚ª‚ê‚͐e•ƒ‚Ì•ö‚ê‚ä‚­Œ¾‚Ì—t‚ðŒ©‚äB
ƒ`ƒ‡[ƒT[¡“ú‚©‚­‚ ‚邲‚Æ‚­Aƒhƒ‰ƒCƒfƒ“–¾“ú‚©‚­‚È‚ç‚ށB



‚±‚±‚ł́Aƒ`ƒ‡[ƒT[‚̉pŒê‚ª•Ï‚í‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚Ä‚æ‚­“Ç‚ß‚È‚¢‚悤‚ɁA

ƒhƒ‰ƒCƒfƒ“‚̉pŒê‚àŒã¢“Ç‚Ü‚ê‚È‚­‚È‚é‹°‚ꂪ‚ ‚é‚Æ•s•½‚ðq‚ׂĂ¢‚Ü‚·B

‰pŒê‚Ì—ðŽj‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA‰p‘lŽ©g‚ª‘Œê‚ɑ΂·‚é—ò“™Š´‚ð‹­‚­—L‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½ŽžŠú‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚͈̂ӊO‚Å‚·‚ˁB


i’Ç‹L‚Pj

BaconiNovum Organum Scientiarum, 1620j‚â Miltoni­Ž¡˜_‘ˆ‚̕فj‚È‚Ç‚àAƒ‰ƒeƒ“Œê‚Å•¶Í‚ð‚à‚Ì‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚µ‚½B


i’Ç‹L‚Qj

Edmund Waller ‚¨‚æ‚Ñ Alexander Pope ‚É‚æ‚éˆêß‚Í R.F.Jones, The Triumph of the English LanguageiStanford University Press, 1953, pp.263-4j‚æ‚èÌ‚è‚Ü‚µ‚½B


i’Ç‹L‚Rj

Edmund Waller ‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‹Lq‚ÍâV“¡—EwƒCƒMƒŠƒX•¶ŠwŽj@‰ü’ù‘•â‘æŒÜ”ŁxiŒ¤‹†ŽÐA1974”NApp.200-1j‚ÉŠî‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B


i’Ç‹L‚Sj

R.F.Jones, The Triumph of the English LanguageiStanford University Press, 1953, p.256j‚æ‚èˆø‚«‚Ü‚·BiÙ–ó‚ð•t‚µ‚Ü‚·Bj

Ben Jonson's belief that in affecting the ancients Spenser wrote no language
iƒXƒyƒ“ƒT[‚͐̂̐l‚ð‹CŽæ‚Á‚ď‘‚¢‚½‚¯‚ê‚Ç‚àAŒ¾—t‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚ƃxƒ“EƒWƒ‡ƒ“ƒ\ƒ“‚ªl‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Ɓj


‚±‚±‚Å‚¢‚¤ the ancientsiÌ‚̐lj‚Æ‚Í Chaucer ‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚ðŽw‚µ‚Ü‚·B

Edmund Spenseri?1552-99j‚Í

uChaucer ˆÈŒã‚±‚ÌŽž‘ã‚܂ł̍ő厍lviâV“¡—EwƒCƒMƒŠƒX•¶ŠwŽj@‰ü’ù‘•â‘æŒÜ”ŁxiŒ¤‹†ŽÐA1974”NAp.85jj

‚Æ‚³‚êAThe Shepheardes Calender ‚â Faerie Queene ‚Å—L–¼‚Ȑl•¨‚Å‚·B

Chaucer ‚𑸌h‚µA”ނ̏‘‚«•û‚ŏ‘‚«AŒÃŒê‚Ì•œŠˆ‚ð}‚Á‚½‚Ì‚Å‚µ‚½‚ªA

‚±‚̈ø—p‚©‚çA16¢‹I‚É‚Í‚·‚Å‚É Chaucer ‚̍ ‚̉pŒê‚Í—‰ð‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚±‚Æ‚ª‚í‚©‚è‚Ü‚·B

‚È‚¨ABen Jonsoni1572-1637j‚͉p‘‚ÌŒ€ì‰ÆEŽlE”á•]‰Æ‚ŁA

âV“¡—EwƒCƒMƒŠƒX•¶ŠwŽj@‰ü’ù‘•â‘æŒÜ”ŁxiŒ¤‹†ŽÐA1974”NAp.97j‚É‚æ‚é‚ƁA

ƒ‰ƒeƒ“•¶Šw‚ɐ¸’Ê‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚̂ŁALatin poets ‚Æ“¯—l‚ÉŽŒ`”ü‚ðd‚ñ‚¶A‚Ü‚½‹³ŒP“IŒXŒü‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½B‚»‚µ‚Ä‚»‚Ì“ÁŽ¿‚́A‘æ17¢‹I’†—t‚ɂ͈ꎞ–Y‚ê‚ç‚ꂽ‚ªADryden ‚É“`‚í‚èA‚Ђ¢‚Ă͌ÓT”hŽl‚ɉe‹¿‚µ‚½B

‚Æ‚³‚ê‚él•¨‚Å‚·B


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2013”N07ŒŽ25“ú

Œ¾Œê‚É‚¨‚¯‚鉹•Ï‰»‚Ì—vˆö


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Œ¾Œê‚É‚¨‚¯‚鉹•Ï‰»‚Ì—vˆö‚ɂ‚¢‚āAOtto Jespersen, Language: Its Nature, Development, and OriginiLondon: G. Allen & Unwin, ltd., 1922, pp.260ff.j‚ÉŠî‚¢‚Ä‹L‚µ‚Ü‚·B

–

í‘ˆ‚â“®—‚ȂǂŐe‚ª—Ž‚¿’…‚¢‚ÄŽq‹Ÿ‚ÌŒ¾—t‚È‚Ç‚ð\•ª‚É‚µ‚±‚Þ‚±‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚È‚¢‚Æ‚È‚è‚Ü‚·‚ƁA

‚»‚ÌŒ‹‰Ê‚́AŽq‹Ÿ‚Ì”­‰¹‚̐^Ž—‚ª•s³Šm‚Æ‚È‚èA‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚āAŒ¾Œê‚Í‘‚­•Ï‚í‚邱‚Æ‚É‚È‚è‚Ü‚·B

‰pŒê‚Ì—ðŽj‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA—Ⴆ‚΁A’†‰pŒê‚©‚ç‹ß‘ã‰pŒê‚Ɉڂé‚Æ‚«‚ɂ́A

1339”N‚©‚ç1453”N‚É‹y‚Ô‰p•§í‘ˆA

14¢‹I’† ‚̍•Ž€•aithe Black DeathA‚È‚¨‚±‚ê‚͐lŒû‚ÌŽO•ª‚̈ê‚ðŽE‚µ‚½A‚ÆŒ¾‚í‚ê‚Ü‚·jA

Wat Tyleri1381”NƒJƒ“ƒ^ƒxƒŠ[‚⃍ƒ“ƒhƒ“‚Å‹N‚±‚Á‚½”½‹tŽ–Œ‚ÌŽw“±ŽÒj‚â Jack Cadei1450”N‚̃Pƒ“ƒg”½—Ž–Œ‚ÌŽw“±ŽÒj‚̈ꝄA

åKåNí‘ˆi1455-85”Nj‚ȂǂŁA

—Ž‚¿’…‚¢‚½‰Æ’됶Šˆ‚³‚¦‚Å‚«‚È‚¢ó‹µ‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚µ‚½B

‚Ü‚½A19¢‹I‚ɁA’¬‚â“s‰ï‚Ì“úí‚̔ڑ­Œê‚ª‹³—{l‚ÌŒ¾Œê‚ƈá‚Á‚Ä‚«‚½‚̂́A

˜J“­ŽÒ‚ÌŽq‹Ÿ‚ª‚Ý‚¶‚߂Ȑ¶Šˆ‚ð‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚É‹Aˆö‚µ‚Ü‚·B

•s³Šm‚Ȗ͕킪Ae‚©‚çŽq‚ցA‘·‚Ö‚Æ‘ãXd‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚­‚ƁA

‰‚߂͍±×‚ȈႢ‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚à‚Ì‚ªA‚‚¢‚É‚Í”ñí‚É‘å‚«‚ȍ·‚Æ‚È‚èA‰¹•Ï‰»‚Æ‚È‚Á‚āA—ðŽjã‚ÉŒ»‚ê‚Ä‚­‚é‚Ì‚Å‚·‚ˁB


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2013”N07ŒŽ24“ú

ƒQƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“”Œ¾Œê‚̍\‘¢”äŠr‚©‚猩‚¦‚é‰pŒê‚Ì“ÁŽ¿


ƒQƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“”Œ¾Œê‚̍\‘¢”äŠr.jpg

iƒNƒŠƒbƒN‚·‚é‚ÆŠg‘債‚Ü‚·j


ƒhƒCƒcŒê‚âƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œê‚È‚Ç‚Æ”ä‚ׂ܂·‚ƁA

‰pŒê‚́AŒÃ‰pŒê‚Ì‹üÜiŒêŒ`•Ï‰»j‚ðŽ¸‚Á‚Ä

‘‡“IŒ¾Œêisynthetic languagej‚©‚番Í“IŒ¾Œêianalytic languagej‚ւƐ„ˆÚ‚µ‚½

‚Æ‚æ‚­Žw“E‚³‚ê‚Ü‚·B

—Ⴆ‚΁Aã‚Ì•\‚ðŒ©‚é‚Æ‚í‚©‚è‚Ü‚·‚悤‚ɁA

ŒÃ‰pŒê‚͌X‚Ì’PŒê‚Æ‚¢‚¢A•¶‚Ì‘g‚Ý—§‚Ä‚Æ‚¢‚¢A

“¯‚¶’á’nƒQƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Œê‚̃Iƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œê‚Æ—ÞŽ—‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邾‚¯‚Å‚È‚­A

‚’nƒQƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Œê‚Ì’¼Œn‚Å‚ ‚éƒhƒCƒcŒê‚Æ‚à“Ž—‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‚Æ‚±‚낪A’PŒê‚ÌŒêŒ`•Ï‰»‚É’ˆÓ‚µ‚Ä”ä‚ׂ܂·‚ƁA

ŒÃ‰pŒê‚̓Iƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œê‚âƒhƒCƒcŒê‚Æ“¯‚¶‚悤‚ɁA

–¼ŽŒ‚â‘ã–¼ŽŒ‚ɂ́A«E”EŠi‚ÌŒêŒ`•Ï‰»‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½‚µA

Š¥ŽŒ‚âŒ`—eŽŒ‚à‚±‚ê‚ɉž‚¶‚ÄŒêŒ`‚ð•Ï‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚µ‚½B

‚µ‚©‚µAŒ»‘ã‰pŒê‚ɂ́A‚±‚̂悤‚ÈŒêŒ`•Ï‰»‚Í‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚Ç‚ ‚è‚Ü‚¹‚ñB

‚Ü‚½A“®ŽŒ‚ðŒ©‚Ü‚µ‚Ä‚àAŒÃ‰pŒê‚́AlÌE”EŽž§‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄŒêŒ`‚ð•Ï‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‚»‚ê‚Í‚¾‚¢‚½‚¢AƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œê‚âƒhƒCƒcŒê‚È‚Ç‚É‚àŒ©‚ç‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚Å‚·B

—v‚·‚é‚ɁA¡“ú‚̉pŒê‚©‚ç‚́A‹üÜiŒêŒ`•Ï‰»j‚ª‘å•”•ªÁŽ¸‚µ‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¢‚Ü‚µ‚½‚ªA

‚»‚Ì‚½‚߁AŒêŒ`‚ª

alda „ old, mannes „ man's, gēafon „gave, sāwon „ saw

‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚悤‚ɁA’Z‚­‚È‚èA

‚»‚ÌŒ‹‰ÊA‰pŒê‚́Aˆê–Ê‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA’P’Ô“IimonosyllabicjŒXŒü‚ðŽ¦‚·‚ÉŽŠ‚è‚Ü‚µ‚½B


i’Ç‹Lj

–{‹LŽ–‚͏¬—Ñ’q‰ê•½w‰pŒêŠwŠT˜_xi“Œ‹ž“°A1955”NApp.331-2j‚Ɉˋ’‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B


posted by Îè —zˆê at 14:07 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2013”N06ŒŽ22“ú

himself ‚Å‚ ‚é‚킯


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–³—‚©‚ç‚Ê‚±‚Æ‚Å‚·‚ªAhisself ‚Æ’Ô‚éŠwKŽÒ‚Í‘½‚¢‚Å‚·‚ˁB

myself ‚â yourself, ourselves ‚©‚ç‚̗ސ„‚Å‚µ‚傤B

‚µ‚©‚µAwƒŠ[ƒ_[ƒY‰p˜aŽ«“T@‘æ‚R”ŁxiŒ¤‹†ŽÐA2012”NAp.1128j‚É‚¨‚¢‚āu•ûŒ¾EŒûŒêv‚̃‰ƒxƒ‹‚ª“\‚Á‚Ä‚ ‚é‚悤‚ɁA

Œ»‘ã‰pŒê‚Å‚Í himself ‚ªŽå—¬‚Æ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‰pŒêŽj‚ðŠw‚Ԃ܂ł́AŽ„‚àA‚È‚º himself ‚È‚Ì‚¾‚낤‚ÆŽv‚Á‚½‚à‚Ì‚Å‚µ‚½B

‚±‚̂悤‚ɁA‚¢‚í‚ä‚éÄ‹A‘ã–¼ŽŒ‚É‚Í

u–Ú“IŠi‘ã–¼ŽŒ{ selfv‚©‚琬‚éŒn—ñ‚ƁAuŠ—LŠi{ selfv‚©‚琬‚éŒn—ñ‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚è

ŠwKŽÒ‚ðŽž‚Æ‚µ‚Ä”Y‚Ü‚¹‚é‚킯‚Å‚·‚ªA

“ñ‚‚̌n—ñ‚ª‚Ý‚ç‚ê‚闝—R‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä‚Í

—ðŽj“I‚ɏã‘ã‚É‚³‚©‚̂ڂ邱‚ƂŁA

‚ ‚é‚¢‚Í

S—Šw“I‚Ì—§ê‚É—§‚‚±‚ƂŁA

à–¾‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚Ü‚·B

r–؈ê—Y ŠÄCE…’¹Šì‹ªE•Ä‘qã^ ’˜w’†‰pŒê‚̏‰•à|‰pŒêŠw“ü–åuÀE‘æ‚TŠªxi‰p’ªŽÐƒtƒFƒjƒbƒNƒXA1997”NAp.37j‚æ‚èˆø‚«‚Ü‚·B


OE ‚Å‚Í self ‚́u“¯‚¶v‚̈Ӗ¡‚ÌŒ`—eŽŒ‚ŁA–¼ŽŒ‚â‘ã–¼ŽŒ‚ðŒã‚©‚çCü‚µ‚½B‚±‚ê‚Í–Ú“IŠi‚Ì‘ã–¼ŽŒ‚Æ‹¤‚É‹N‚±‚邱‚Æ‚ª‘½‚©‚Á‚½B‚±‚±‚©‚çu–Ú“IŠi‘ã–¼ŽŒ{ selfvŒ`‚ª ME ‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä”­’B‚µ‚½B‚µ‚©‚µAME ‚̍ ‚É‚È‚é‚ƁAself ‚Í‚à‚Í‚âŒ`—eŽŒ‚Å‚Í‚È‚­–¼ŽŒ‚Æ‚µ‚ĉðŽß‚³‚êŽn‚ß‚½‚̂ŁA–Ú“IŠi‘ã–¼ŽŒ‚ªŠ—LŠi‘ã–¼ŽŒ‚É’u‚«Š·‚¦‚ç‚êAmyself, yourself ‚̂悤‚È self ‚ðCü‚·‚éŒ`‚ª¶‚܂ꂽB‚±‚ê‚É‚Í‚à‚¤ˆê‚‚̍l‚¦•û‚ª‚ ‚éB‚‚܂èAmē self, þē self ‚Ì”­‰¹‚ªŽã‚Ü‚Á‚Ä mī self, þī self ‚Æ‚È‚èA“¯Žž‚É self ‚ª–¼ŽŒ‚ÆŠ´‚¶‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚«‚Ä myself, thyself ‚È‚Ç‚ª¶‚¶‚½‚Æ‚·‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB


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2013”N03ŒŽ16“ú

–ÙŽš‚̐¬—§‰ß’ö


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‚gDƒzƒƒCƒgƒz[ƒ‹’˜E]ì‘׈ê˜Y–󒍁w‰pŒê‹³ˆçƒVƒŠ[ƒY12@‰pŒê\‘¢‚ÌŠî–{–â‘èxi‘åCŠÙA1962”NAp.271j‚æ‚è”õ–Y‚Ì‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—¯‚ß‚Ä‚¨‚«‚Ü‚·B


–ÙŽš‚Ƃ́u’Ô‚è‚ɏ‘‚©‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Ä‚à”­‰¹‚³‚ê‚È‚¢Žšv‚Å‚ ‚邱‚Æ‚Í‚¢‚¤‚Ü‚Å‚à‚È‚¢B–ÙŽš‚ð‚»‚Ì¬—§‰ß’ö‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•ª‚¯‚ê‚΁Ai1j‚©‚Á‚Ä”­‰¹‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚à‚́Ai2j‚©‚Á‚Ĉê“x‚à”­‰¹‚³‚ꂽ‚±‚Æ‚Ì‚È‚¢‚à‚Ì‚ª‚ ‚èA‚±‚́i2j‚ɂ́iajŒê‚̌ꌹ‚ðŽ¦‚·‚½‚ß‚É‚ ‚鎞Šú‚É‘}“ü‚³‚ꂽ‚à‚́Aibj”­‰¹‚̈Ⴂ‚ðŽ¦‚·•WŽ¯•„“I‚È‚à‚Ì‚Æ‚µ‚Ä•t—^‚³‚ꂽ‚à‚Ì‚ª‚ ‚éB


i’Ç‹Lj

Œcœä‘åŠw‚Ì–x“c—²ˆêæ¶‚ª‰^‰c‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éuhellog`‰pŒêŽjƒuƒƒOv‚Í“ú ‚©‚瑽‚­‚ðŠw‚΂¹‚Ä‚¢‚½‚¾‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚éƒEƒFƒuƒTƒCƒg‚Å‚·BˆÈ‰º‚Ì‹LŽ–‚àŽQl‚É‚È‚è‚Ü‚·B

œ Žq‰¹Žš‚Ì–ÙŽš



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2012”N12ŒŽ27“ú

legalistic double-ups ‚Æ–z•ú‚ÈŒ¾—t—V‚Ñ


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legalistic double-ups ‚ɂ‚¢‚āARobertson Cochrane, Wordplay: Origins, Meanings, and Usage of the English LanguageiUniversity of Toronto Press, 1996, pp.23-4j‚©‚ç”õ–Y‚Ì‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—¯‚ß‚Ä‚¨‚«‚Ü‚·B


Many of the legalistic double-ups are left over from the multilingual nature of England following the Norman Conquest of 1066. The common people spoke English, and the upper crust spoke Norman French, while laws and church matters were in Latin. So many common expressions were rendered in a mixture of English and Frenchior Latinj. Breaking and entering is an obvious and well-known example of mixing Old English and French words that mean the same thing.

Legal documents, and to some extent our everyday speech and writing, still bristle with these ageing bilingual barnacles|last will and testament, bequeath and devise, true and correct, fit and proper, free and clear, save and except, peace and quiet, goods and chattels.

i’†—ªj

By hook or by crook, time and tideias in Yuletide, or season, or timejwait for no one. What with one thing and another, we pick and choose at odds and ends. Remaining outwardly calm, cool, and collected, we struggle with might and main to be fair and square, to tread the straightionce straitjand narrow path and avoid racjiread wrack or wreckjand ruin. But when push comes to shove, and we've looked at all the whys and wherefores, it's best to have a last will and testamentithey were once distinctjso that our heirs and successors won't have to slug it out with other kith and kin.

And with that, before somebody smites me hip and thigh, I'd better cease, desist, and sign off.



i’Ç‹Lj

‘ì••vw–@—¥‰pŒê‚ÌŠî‘b’mŽ¯xi¤Ž––@–±Œ¤‹†‰ïA1992”NApp.192-9j‚́A–@—¥—pŒê‚É‚¨‚¢‚āAuŽÀÛ‚Ì•K—v‚©‚琶‚܂ꂽ‰p•§•¹‹L‚ÌŠµs‚©‚çA“¯‹`Œê‚ðŒê‚ÌŒn“‚ÉŠÖŒW‚È‚­•¹‹L‚È‚¢‚µ—…—ñ‚·‚é‚悤‚É‚È‚Á‚½v‚Æ‚µA—p—á‚ðƒAƒ‹ƒtƒ@ƒxƒbƒg‡‚É—ñ‹“‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚è•Ö—˜‚Å‚·B


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2012”N12ŒŽ19“ú

‰¼’è–@‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹iSubjunctive Past Perfectj‚Ì”­¶ŽžŠú


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‰¼’è–@‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹iSubjunctive Past Perfectj‚Ì”­¶ŽžŠú‚ɂ‚¢‚āA‰Í‡–΁w‰p•¶–@ŠT˜_@•œ”Łxi–¾—Ϗo”ŁA1988”NAp.469j‚æ‚è”õ–Y‚Ì‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—¯‚ß‚Ä‚¨‚«‚Ü‚·B


Œ»¡‚Ì school grammar ‚ɉ—‚Ä Subjunctive Past Perfect ‚Æâi‚·‚é‚à‚́T form ‚Í Indicative ‚Ì Past Perfect ‚Æ‘S‘R“¯ˆê‚Å‚ ‚éB
@
Ÿ‚Ì Subjunctive Past Perfect ‚́i’†—ªjIndicative ‚ɉ—‚¯‚é‚Æ“¯—l‚ɁA‚n‚d‚É‚Í‘¶‚µ‚È‚©‚‚½‚à‚̂ŁAearly ‚l‚d‚ɉ—‚Ä Subjunctive Preterite ‚ƁuŽžv‚Ì™½•Ê‚ð‚·‚é‚½‚߂ɉpŒê‚Éᢐ¶‚µ‚½‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‘´‚ÌácŽž–˜‚ÍŒ»¡‚Ì Subjunctive Preterite ‚Æâi‚·‚é‚à‚Ì‚ðˆÈ‚‚āAŸ‚Ì Subjunctive Past Perfect ‚Ì–ð–Ú‚ð‹Î‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚½iŒã—ªj



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2012”N11ŒŽ16“ú

•s‹K‘¥“®ŽŒ‚́u•s‹K‘¥v‚̈Ӗ¡


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Œ»‘ã‰pŒê‚É‚¨‚¢‚āAwrite-wrote-written ‚È‚Ç‚ÆŠˆ—p‚·‚é“®ŽŒ‚Í•s‹K‘¥“®ŽŒ‚ƌĂ΂ê‚Ü‚·B

¡‰ñ‚Í‚±‚́u•s‹K‘¥v‚̈Ӗ¡‚ð‰pŒêŽj“I‚ɍl‚¦‚Ä‚Ý‚½‚¢‚ÆŽv‚¢‚Ü‚·B

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ŒÃ‰pŒêiOld English, 450-1100j‚Ì“®ŽŒ‚͉ߋŽŒ`‚ƉߋŽ•ªŽŒ‚̍ì‚è•û‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä‘å‚«‚­‚SŽí—Þ‚É•ª—Þ‚³‚ê‚Ü‚·B

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Charles C. Fries, American English GrammariNew YorkFAppleton-Century-Crofts, 1940, pp.60-1j‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A

‚±‚Ì‚¤‚¿A‹­•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚Í–ñ300ŒÂ‚ ‚èAŽã•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚ª“®ŽŒ‘S‘Ì‚Ì–ñ‚R•ª‚Ì‚Q‚ðè‚ß‚Ü‚·B

‹­•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚Æ‚Í“®ŽŒ‚̌ꊲ‚̕ꉹ‚ð•Ï‚¦‚邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚ĉߋŽŒ`‚ƉߋŽ•ªŽŒ‚ðì‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚èA

Žã•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚ÍŽ•Œs•Â½‰¹imdn‚Ü‚½‚́mtnj‚Ì“Y‰Á‚É‚æ‚éŒê”ö•Ï‰»‚ʼnߋŽŒ`‚ƉߋŽ•ªŽŒ‚ðì‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚·B

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“Á‚ɁA’†‰pŒêiMiddle English, 1100-1500jŠú‚É‘å—Ê‚ÌŠO—ˆŒê‚ª“ü‚èo‚·‚ÆŠO—ˆ‚Ì“®ŽŒ‚̕ω»‚Í‚½‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚±‚ÌŒ^‚ŊԂɍ‡‚킳‚ê‚Ü‚µ‚½B

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Fries ‚́wãŒf‘x‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A

ŒÃ‰pŒêŠú‚É‚Í300ˆÈã‚Ì‹­•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚µ‚½‚ªA‚»‚Ì‚¤‚¿–ñ‚R•ª‚Ì‚P‚Í”p—p‚Æ‚È‚èA–ñ‚R•ª‚Ì‚P‚ÍŽã•Ï‰»“®ŽŒi‹K‘¥“®ŽŒj‚É•Ï‚í‚èA–ñ60‚Ì‹­•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚Í•s‹K‘¥“®ŽŒ‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŒ»‘ã‚܂Ő¶‚«Žc‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Æ‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚Å‚·B

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“úí•p”É‚É—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚邽‚߁A‚æ‚­e‚µ‚Ü‚êA‚¢‚í‚΍ª‚̐¶‚¦‚½‚悤‚É’è’…‚µA—eˆÕ‚É‚Í‘ã‘Ö‚³‚ê‚È‚¢‘¶Ý‚É‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Å‚·B

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Charles C. Fries, American English GrammariNew YorkFAppleton-Century-Crofts, 1940j
Žs‰ÍŽOŠìwŒÃ‘ã’†¢‰pŒê‰•àxiŒ¤‹†ŽÐA1963”Nj
‰F‰êŽ¡³•üw‰pŒêŽjxiŠJ‘ñŽÐA2000”Nj
‰F²Œ©–M—YwŒÃ‰pŒê•¶–@Œ¤‹†xiŠwK‰@‘åŠwA1992”Nj
‰º£ŽOç˜Y ŒÃ‰êˆò—m ˆÉ“¡O”VwŒÃ‰pŒê“ü–åx(‘åŠw‘—сA1990”N)
‹´–{Œ÷w‰pŒêŽj“ü–åxiŒcœä‹`mo”ʼnïA2005”Nj
“n•”¸ˆêw‰pŒê‚Ì—ðŽjxi‘åCŠÙ‘“XA1983”Nj


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ŒSŽi—˜’jwƒAƒ_ƒ€‚Ì‚Ö‚»xi‹ËŒ´‘“XA1984”NApp.111-2j‚æ‚èˆø‚«‚Ü‚·B

‚¢‚¸‚ê‚̐¢‘ã‚É‚àŽáŽÒ‚ÌŽž‘オ‚ ‚èA‚±‚Ƃ΂ª•Ï‰»‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­Œ_‹@‚Ì‘½‚­‚ÍŽáŽÒ‚É‚ ‚éA‚ÆŒ¾‚Á‚Ä‚æ‚¢‚Å‚ ‚낤B‚½‚¾‚µAŽáŽÒ‚Ì‚±‚Ƃ΂ª‚·‚ׂāA‚»‚ÌŒ¾Œê‚ɐ³“–‚È’nˆÊ‚ð—^‚¦‚ç‚ê‚é‚Æ‚Í‚©‚¬‚ç‚È‚¢B‘½‚­‚͈ê‰ß«‚ٌ̈`‚ɏI‚í‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤B‰pE•Ä‚ÌŽq‹Ÿ‚Ì‘½‚­‚ªAŠO‚Å‚¯‚ñ‚©‚ð‚µ‚Ä‹A‚Á‚Ä‚­‚é‚ƁA‚Í‚¶‚ß‚Í fighti‚¯‚ñ‚©‚·‚éj‚̉ߋŽŒ`‚Æ‚µ‚Ä fighted ‚ðŒû‚É‚·‚邪A‚½‚¿‚Ç‚±‚ë‚É•êe‚É fought ‚Æ’ù³‚³‚ê‚éB‚±‚ÌŒê‚Í”äŠr“I•p“x‚ª‚‚¢‚©‚çA‚Ü‚¾—ސ„‚̗͂ɍR‚µ‚Ä‹­•Ï‰»k•s‹K‘¥l“®ŽŒ‚Ì‚Ü‚Ü‚Å‚ ‚邪A‰pŒê‚Ì—ðŽj‚͈êŠÑ‚µ‚Ä‹­•Ï‰»“®ŽŒÁ–Å‚Ì—ðŽj‚Å‚ ‚éB

‰pE•Ä‚ÌŽq‹Ÿ‚ª‚Í‚¶‚ß fighted ‚ðŒû‚É‚·‚é‚Ì‚ªAŒ»‘ã‰pŒê‚Ì‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚Ç‚Ì“®ŽŒ‚ªŽã•Ï‰»i -ed ‚ð‚‚¯‚éj‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚±‚ë‚©‚ç‚­‚é—ސ„‚Å‚ ‚èAŽq‹Ÿ‚½‚¿‚É‚È‚É‚©•Ï‰»‚ð‹‚ß‚éˆÓ}‚ª‚ ‚é‚킯‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢B



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’†“‡•¶—Y •Òw‰p•¶–@Ž«“Txi‰Ío‘–[A1955”Nj‚Í conjugation ‚̍€ipp.99-104j‚É‚àÚq‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·B



posted by Îè —zˆê at 05:34 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2012”N10ŒŽ07“ú

as you like it


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‰pŒê‚Ì as you like it ‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ¾‚¢•û‚ðAƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒê‚Ì s'il vous plaît ‚âƒhƒCƒcŒê‚Ì wenn es Ihnen gefällt ‚Æ”äŠr‚µ‚È‚ª‚ç‰pŒêŽj“I‚Éà–¾‚µ‚½‚¢‚ÆŽv‚¢‚Ü‚·B

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‚‚܂èAas you like it ‚Í as it like youi‚ ‚È‚½‚É‚Æ‚Á‚Ä‹C‚É“ü‚é‚悤‚Ɂj‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚Ì‚ª–{—ˆ‚̌ꏇ‚È‚Ì‚Å‚µ‚½B

ilike ‚Í—ðŽj“I‚É”ñlÌ“®ŽŒ‚Ȃ̂ŁA‚±‚Ì it ‚Í”ñlÌ‚Ì it ‚Å‚ ‚èA‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚LjӖ¡‚ð‚à‚½‚È‚¢‚ƍl‚¦‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·Bj

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‚³‚ç‚É‚±‚Ì•\Œ»‚ª Shakespeare ‚ÌŒ€‚Ì‘è–¼‚Æ‚µ‚Ä•‹y‚µA‚Ì‚¿‚ɏnŒê“I•\Œ»‚Æ‚µ‚Ä’è’…‚·‚é‚ƁA‚±‚̏ꍇ‚Ì you ‚ÍŽåŠi‚Å it ‚Í like ‚ÉŽx”z‚³‚ê‚é‘ΊiA‚Æ‚¢‚¤”FŽ¯‚ªŠmŒÅ‚½‚é‚à‚Ì‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½‚Æ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B


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”ñlÌ‚Ì eitfiimpersonal eitfj‚Ƃ́A”ñlÌ“®ŽŒ‚ÌŽåŒê‚Æ‚µ‚Ä—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚é it ‚ð‚¢‚¢‚Ü‚·B

”ñlÌ“®ŽŒiimpersonal verbj‚Ƃ́AŽåŒê‚𔺂í‚È‚¢A‚Ü‚½‚Í‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚LjӖ¡‚Ì‚È‚¢”ñlÌ‚Ì eitfiimpersonal eitfj‚ðŽåŒê‚Æ‚·‚é“®ŽŒ‚ð‚¢‚¢‚Ü‚·B

”ñlÌ‚Ì eitf ‚Í“Á‚ɉ½‚©‚ðŽw‚·‚±‚Æ‚È‚­AŒ`Ž®“I‚ÉŽåŒê‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‹@”\‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ɉ߂¬‚¸A“®ŽŒ‚͏í‚É‚RlÌ’P”Œ`‚ª‘Ήž‚µ‚Ü‚·B

‚æ‚Á‚āA”ñlÌ‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚Æ‚«‚̐lÌ‚́A•¶–@‚Å‚¢‚¤lÌ‚Å‚Í‚È‚­A“Á’è‚Ì‚à‚́A‚Æ‚­‚ɐlŠÔ‚ðˆÓ–¡‚·‚éŒê‚ðŽåŒê‚Æ‚·‚é‚à‚Ì‚Æ‰ð‚·‚ê‚΂悢‚Å‚µ‚傤B

ˆÈãA´…Œì•Òw‰p•¶–@Ž«“Txi”|•—ŠÙA1965”NApp.316-7j‚Ɉˋ’‚µ‚Ä‚Ü‚Æ‚ß‚Ü‚µ‚½B


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‘å’ˍ‚M•Òw‰pŒêŠµ—p–@Ž«“TxiŽOÈ“°A1961”Nj‚́emutualf‚̍€ip.723j‚É‚æ‚é‚ƁAour common friend ‚æ‚è our mutual friend ‚Ì•û‚ª•’Ê‚É—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚é‚Ì‚Í C.Dickens ‚Ì’·•Ò¬à‚Ì‘è–¼ Our Mutual Friendi1864-5j‚ɏ•’·‚³‚ꂽ‚±‚Æ‚ªˆêˆö‚Æ‚³‚ê‚Ü‚·B


posted by Îè —zˆê at 19:25 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2012”N10ŒŽ02“ú

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posted by Îè —zˆê at 07:07 | Comment(2) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2012”N07ŒŽ31“ú

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‚Æ‚¨‚Á‚µ‚á‚Á‚ÄŠ®Ž¢‚Æ‚³‚ꂽB–ñ“ñ”NŠÔA’P”–¼ŽŒ‚É -s ‚̂‚­‹^–â‚ðŽ„‚ÍŽ‚¿‘±‚¯‚½‚킯‚¾‚µA‡‘¾æ¶‚Í‚»‚Ì“š‚¦‚ð’m‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚āA“ñ”NŠÔ‚ɏ­‚È‚­‚Æ‚à“ñ\‰ñ‚Í‚¨‰ï‚¢‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚É‹³‚¦‚ĉº‚³‚ç‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚킯‚Å‚ ‚éB


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2012”N07ŒŽ27“ú

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‘å•ê‰¹„ˆÚ‚̓Aƒ‹ƒtƒ@ƒxƒbƒg‚̌Ăѕû‚ð‚à‚©‚¦‚½Ba ‚ðmein‚ƌĂԂ͉̂pŒê‚݂̂ŁA‘å—¤‚Ì–w‚ǂǂ̍‘‚Å‚àma(ː)n‚ƌĂԁBe ‚ðme(ː)n‚ƌĂ΂¸‚Ɂmi(ː)n‚ƌĂсAi ‚ðmi(ː)n‚ƌĂ΂¸‚Ɂmain‚ƌĂԂ̂à‰pŒê‚¾‚¯‚Å‚ ‚éB


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MEF’†‰pŒêBMiddle English‚Ì—ªB1100”N ‚©‚ç1500”N ‚܂ł̉pŒê‚ðŽw‚µ‚Ü‚·B

Mod EF‹ß‘ã‰pŒêBModern English‚Ì—ªB1500”N ˆÈŒã‚̉pŒê‚ðŽw‚µ‚Ü‚·B‚¿‚Ȃ݂ɁA“Á‚É20¢‹IˆÈ~‚̉pŒê‚ðŽw‚·ê‡‚É‚ÍPEiPresent-day Englishj‚ðA‚³‚ç‚ɍŋ߂̉pŒê‚ðŽw‚·ê‡‚É‚ÍContemporary English‚ð‚»‚ê‚¼‚êŽg‚¢‚Ü‚·B


posted by Îè —zˆê at 22:19 | Comment(2) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

u•—v‚̈ӂ̖¼ŽŒ wind ‚Ì”­‰¹‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä


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²X–Ø’Bw‰pŽ‚Ì‚±‚Ƃ΁xiŒêŠwo”ŎЁA1949”NApp.3-5j‚ɏڏq‚ª‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·B


posted by Îè —zˆê at 21:41 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2012”N07ŒŽ26“ú

ƒVƒFƒCƒNƒXƒsƒA‚Ɛ¹‘‚̉pŒê


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Penguin Books ‚©‚ç Pelican ‘p‘‚̈êû‚Æ‚µ‚ďo‚Ä‚¢‚é Simeon Potter, Our languagei1950j‚Ì54ƒy[ƒW‚æ‚èˆø—p‚µ‚Ü‚·Bi‰ºü‚͈ø—pŽÒ‚É‚æ‚éBj


That acute and incisive critic George Saintsbury, who was not given to exaggerate, spoke well when he declared (in his History of Elizabethan Literture) that ... The plays of Shakespeare and the English Bible are, and ever will be, the twin monuments not merely of their own period, but of the perfection of English,....


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‚ ‚̉s•q‚È”á•]‰Æ‚̃Wƒ‡[ƒWEƒZƒCƒ“ƒcƒxƒŠ‚֑͌å‚É•¨‚ðŒ¾‚¤l‚Å‚Í‚È‚©‚Á‚½‚ªAi”ނ́wƒGƒŠƒUƒxƒX’©•¶ŠwŽjx‚Ì’†‚ŁjcƒVƒFƒCƒNƒXƒsƒA‚Ì‹Y‹È‚ƉpŒê‚̐¹‘‚́AŒ»Ý‚àA‚Ü‚½«—ˆ‚à’·‚­A‚»‚ꂼ‚êA‚»‚̏‘‚©‚ꂽŽž‘ã‚Ì‹L”O”è‚Å‚ ‚é‚΂©‚è‚Å‚È‚­AŠ®¬‚³‚ꂽ‰pŒê‚ÌŽp‚̈ê‘΂̋L”O”è‚Å‚ ‚èc‚Æ‚¢‚Ý‚¶‚­‚à’fŒ¾‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB


‚È‚¨AGeorge Saintsburyi1845-1933j‚̓CƒMƒŠƒX‚Ì•¶ŠwŽj‰ÆA•¶Œ|”á•]‰ÆBHistory of Elizabethan Literature ‚Í1887”N‚ɏo”Å‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B


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’†“‡•¶—Yw‰pŒêF•¶–@‚Ɗӏ܁xiŠJ•¶ŽÐA1951”NAp.134j‚æ‚è”õ–Y‚Ì‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—¯‚ß‚Ä‚¨‚«‚Ü‚·BiŠ¿Žš‚͐VŽš‘̂ɉü‚ß‚Ä‚ ‚è‚Ü‚·Bj

¹‘‚Ì Authorized Version ‚Í–|–ó‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚è‚È‚ª‚çA‰pŒê‘–¯‚ÌŠÔ‚Å‚Í Shakespeare ‚Æ•À‚ñ‚ō‘–¯•¶Šw‚Ì“ñ‘å‹àŽš“ƒ‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

‚Ü‚½A‰p–󐹏‘‚ÌŒêœb‚Æ•¶‘̂ɂ‚¢‚āwãŒf‘xip.109j‚Å‚Í

”äŠr“I¬‚³‚ÈŒêœb‚©‚ç‚È‚è‘f–p‚ÈŒê‚ðŽg—p‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB]‚Á‚Ä•¶Í‚͌Õ—‚Å‚Í‚ ‚邪•½–¾‚ʼnpŒêŽU•¶‚̖͔͂ƂȂÁ‚Ä‚¢‚éBJohn Bunyan ‚ÍŠw–â‚Ì‚È‚¢’j‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚ª[‚­¹‘‚ÉŒX“|‚µA—¦’¼ŠÈ–¾‚È•¶Í‚ð‘‚¢‚½B

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posted by Îè —zˆê at 11:10 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒêŽj“I‚Èà–¾ | XVî•ñ‚ðƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é
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