2017”N02ŒŽ11“ś

‰pŒź‹³ˆē‚É‚Ø‚Æ‚é‰pŒźŽj‚ĢŒų—p




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‰pŒź‹³ˆē‚É‚Ø‚Æ‚é‰pŒźŽj‚ĢŒų—p‚É‚Ā‚¢‚āANorbert Schmitt • Richard Marsden, Why Is English Like That?FHistorical answers to hard ELT questionsiThe University of Michigan Press, 2006, p.śDj‚ę‚č”õ–Y‚Ģ‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—Æ‚ß‚Ä‚Ø‚«‚Ü‚·B


Perhaps you have found yourself confronted by awkward questions from your students such as:

œ Why is night spelled with gh?
i’†—Ŗj
œ Why does English have so many synonyms like intelligent, clever, astute, and bright?

You may have found yourself at a loss for satisfactory responses, and you may have had to provide vague answers, such as "That's just the way it is." Luckily, there are historical answers to these questions.i’†—Ŗj

We believe students long for good explanations for these quirks and exceptions [= the quirks and exceptions in English that can be explained on a historical basis] and appreciate it if you can give them concrete reasons for their existence. Pedagogically, the explanations are not guaranteed to help your students learn English any faster, but at a minimum, we feel that they can help alleviate their frustration with some of the seemingly unreasonable aspects of the language, and, as a result, maintain their motivation and interest. At best, the explanations may help your students to a more informed understanding of the English system and may actually facilitate their learning.



i’Ē‹Lj

“n•”øˆźE]“”—T”VE•½‰ŖOĶwƒOƒ[ƒoƒ‹EƒGƒŠ[ƒg‹³ˆēxiPHPŒ¤‹†ŠA2016”NApp.115-20jŠŽūA“Į•Ź“C’kq‹³ˆēE—ÆŠw‚ĢˆÓ–”‚šl‚¦‚ér‚ę‚čA•½‰ŖOĶę¶i“•—’†ŠwZE‚“™ŠwZ•›Z’·j‚ĢŒä”­Œ¾‚šˆų‚«‚Ü‚·B


ƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚ʼnpŒź‚šƒlƒCƒeƒBƒu‚ɏK‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ę‚«‚Ģ‚±‚Ę‚Å‚·B

ķX‹^–ā‚ÉŽv‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Ę‚Ŗ‚ ‚čAƒlƒCƒeƒBƒu‚ɐq‚Ė‚Ä‚Ż‚Ü‚µ‚½B

i’†—Ŗj

‚·‚é‚ʁA”Ž‚Ķ”¼‚Ī‚ ‚«‚ź‚½‚ꂤ‚É‚±‚¤“š‚¦‚Ü‚µ‚½B

uŒN‚Ķ‘å‚«‚ČŠŌˆį‚¢‚š‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ꂤ‚¾B”‚Č‚ēŠŌ‚ɍ‡‚¤‚ęBK‚¢ŒN‚ĶƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚É—ˆ‚½‚Ī‚©‚č‚¾‚µA‚»‚ń‚ČƒoƒJ‚ȍl‚¦‚Ķ‘‚­–Y‚ź‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¢‚Č‚³‚¢vB‚³‚ē‚É‚±‚¤‘±‚Æ‚Ü‚µ‚½Bu‚Ē‚¤‚µ‚Ä‹ó‚ĶĀ‚¢‚ń‚¾‚¢Hv—¼˜r‚š‚µ‚©‚½‚Č‚³‚»‚¤‚ɍL‚°‚Č‚Ŗ‚ēAu“Æ‚¶‚±‚Ę‚¾‚ęBą–¾‚Č‚ń‚Ä‚Å‚«‚Č‚¢vB‚»‚¤Œ¾‚Į‚Ęb‚ĶI‚ķ‚č‚Ü‚µ‚½B

ƒAƒƒŠƒJ‘ŲŻ’†‚É‚Ł‚©‚ĢƒlƒCƒeƒBƒu‚É‚ą‚¢‚­‚Ē‚©“Æ‚¶Žæ–ā‚š‚µ‚Ä‚Ż‚Ü‚µ‚½‚ŖA“š‚¦‚Ķ‚Ł‚Ę‚ń‚Ē“Æ‚¶‚Å‚µ‚½B

ē’k‚¶‚į‚Č‚¢B“ś–{‚ÅŽ©•Ŗ‚Ģź–å•Ŗ–ģ‚Å”Ń‚šH‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚éŽŅ‚ŖA‚»‚Ģą–¾‚Ę‚µ‚āu‹ó‚ĶĀ‚¢‚©‚ēĀ‚¢v‚Ę•Š‚Ć‚Æ‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¦‚ĪA‚½‚æ‚Ü‚æ‚»‚ĢE‚šŽø‚¤‚±‚Ę‚É‚Č‚é‚¾‚ė‚¤BŽ„‚Ģ•ų‚­‹^–ā‚Ķ‚»‚ń‚Č‚É‚Ø‚©‚µ‚Č‚ą‚Ģ‚¾‚ė‚¤‚©ccB

i’†—Ŗj

Ž„‚É‚µ‚Ä‚Ż‚ź‚ĪA‰pŒź‚š‚ę‚č—‰š‚·‚邽‚ß‚É‚ĶAŠŪˆĆ‹L‚Å‚Č‚­A­‚µ‚Å‚ąƒlƒCƒeƒBƒu‚É‹ß‚¢Š“Šo‚ÅŒ¾—t‚ĢŽ‚Āƒjƒ…ƒAƒ“ƒX‚š‚Ā‚©‚Ž‚±‚Ę‚Ŗ•K—v‚¾‚ʍl‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½‚©‚ē‚Å‚·B

i’†—Ŗj

”‚Ģ“ś–{‚ĢŽŠ‰ļ‚ʼnpŒź‚šK“¾‚·‚é‚É‚ĶA‚»‚Ģ‰pŒź‚š‹³‚¦‚鑤‚ĢlŠŌ‚Ŗ‚ę‚­—‰š‚µA‚»‚Ģ—‰š‚š[‚­Šš‚ŻÓ‚¢‚Ä—^‚¦‚邱‚ʁBi’†—Ŗj

‹³‚¦‚鑤‚Ŗ‰pŒź‚š‚ę‚­•×‹­‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Ę‚±‚»‚ŖA“ś–{‚Ģ‰pŒź‹³ˆē‚Ģ—v‚Ę‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·Bi’†—Ŗj‚ ‚Ü‚·‚Ę‚±‚ė‚Č‚­•ŖĶ‚µA•×‹­‚µAŽ©M‚šŽ‚Į‚Ä‹³‚¦‚é‚ׂ«‚Å‚·Bi’†—Ŗj

¶“k‚Ŗ‹^–ā‚ÉŽv‚Į‚½‚±‚ʁA‹»–”‚šŽ‚Į‚½‚±‚ʂɐ^•‚ÉŒü‚«‚ ‚¢A‚»‚ź‚ɉž‚¦A—‰š‚Ę‹»–”‚šŽ‚½‚¹‚é‚Ģ‚ŖA‹³Žt‚Ģ‘å‚«‚Č–šŠ„‚¾‚ĘŽv‚¤‚Ģ‚Å‚·B



posted by Īč —zˆź at 20:33 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2015”N02ŒŽ07“ś

ŽžEšŒ‚Ģ•›ŽŒß‚É‚Ø‚Æ‚é will ‚Ģ•sŽg—p‚É‚Ā‚¢‚Ä | —šŽj“IŠĻ“_‚©‚ē


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Œcœä‘åŠw‚Ģ–x“c—²ˆźę¶‚Ŗ‰^‰c‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚éuhellog`‰pŒźŽjƒuƒƒOv‚Ķ“ś ‚©‚ē‘½‚­‚šŠw‚Ī‚¹‚Ä‚¢‚½‚¾‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚éƒEƒFƒuƒTƒCƒg‚Å‚·B

ŽžEšŒ‚Ģ•›ŽŒß‚É‚Ø‚Æ‚é will ‚Ģ•sŽg—p‚É‚Ā‚¢‚āA‚»‚ĢŽæ‹^‰ž“š—“‚Å‚Ģ‚ā‚č‚Ę‚č‚É‹»–”‚šˆų‚©‚ź‚Ü‚µ‚½B

”õ–Y‚Ģ‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—Æ‚ß‚Ä‚Ø‚«‚Ü‚·B


‘±‚«‚š“Ē‚Ž
posted by Īč —zˆź at 11:59 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2014”N08ŒŽ11“ś

ŽO’PŒ»‚Ģ s ‚Ķ‚Č‚ŗ•t‚Æ‚é


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ŽåŒź‚ŖŽOlĢ’P”Œ»Ż‚ĢŽž‚Ķ‚Č‚ŗ“®ŽŒ‚É s ‚š•t‚Æ‚é‚Ģ‚©A‚É‚Ā‚¢‚āAwŠāč–Æ•½•¶W|‰pŒź‚Š‚Ę‚·‚¶‚Ģ¶ŠUxiŒ¤‹†ŽŠA1985”NAp.427j‚ę‚č”õ–Y‚Ģ‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—Æ‚ß‚Ä‚Ø‚«‚Ü‚·B


–¼ŽŒ‚Ģź‡ s ‚Ķ pl. ‚šŽ¦‚·‚Ģ‚ɁA“®ŽŒ‚Ģź‡ s ‚Ŗ‚©‚¦‚Į‚Ä sing. ‚šŽ¦‚·‚Ģ‚Ķ‚Č‚ŗ‚©‚Ę•sR‚šŽ‚½‚ź‚é‚ŖA‰½‚ʐą–¾‚·‚ׂ«‚©i’†—Ŗj‚±‚ź‚Ķ‰pŒźŽj‚šŽ‚æo‚·ˆČŠO‚Ķ‚Č‚¢‚ŖAŒĆ‚¢‚Ę‚±‚ė‚Å‚Ķ“®ŽŒ‚Ģ pl. ‚É‚ą -es, -eth, -en ‚š—p‚¢‚½‚ą‚Ģ‚ŖA”‚ĶŠF’E—Ž‚µ‚ÄŽOlĢ’P”‚É‚¾‚ÆŽc‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ģ‚¾‚ĘŠČ’P‚ÉŒ¾‚Į‚Ä‚ę‚¢‚Å‚µ‚傤B


i’Ē‹Lj

Œcœä‘åŠw‚Ģ–x“c—²ˆźę¶‚Ŗ‰^‰c‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚éuhellog`‰pŒźŽjƒuƒƒOv‚Å‚ĶAˆČ‰ŗ‚Ģ‹LŽ–‚É‚Ø‚¢‚Ĉµ‚ķ‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

œ ‚Č‚ŗ3’PŒ»‚Ģ -s ‚Ŗ‚Ā‚­‚Ģ‚©H


posted by Īč —zˆź at 11:08 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2013”N08ŒŽ21“ś

women ‚É‚Ø‚Æ‚é”­‰¹‚Ę’ŌŽš‚Ģ˜Ø—£


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women ‚É‚Ø‚Æ‚é”­‰¹‚Ę’ŌŽš‚Ģ˜Ø—£‚É‚Ā‚¢‚āA

r–Ųˆź—Y ŠÄCE…’¹Šģ‹ŖE•Ä‘qć^ ’˜w’†‰pŒź‚Ģ‰•ą|‰pŒźŠw“ü–åuĄE‘ę‚TŠŖxi‰p’ŖŽŠƒtƒFƒjƒbƒNƒXA1997”NAp.124j‚ę‚č”õ–Y‚Ģ‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—Æ‚ß‚Ä‚Ø‚«‚Ü‚·Bi‰ŗü•”‚ĶŒ»•MŽŅ‚É‚ę‚éBj


OE ‚Å‚Ķ’P” wīfmann, •”” wīfmenn ‚Å‚ ‚Į‚½‚ŖA‚¢‚ø‚ź‚ą‹ts“Ɖ»iregressive assimilationj|Œć‘±‰¹ mmn ‚Ģ‰e‹æ‚É‚ę‚č mfn ➔ mmn|‚É‚ę‚čAwimman, wimmen ‚Ę‚Č‚Į‚½BME ‚É‚Ķ‚¢‚é‚ʁA‘OŽŅ‚ĶŒź“Ŗ‚Ģ mwn ‚Ģ‰e‹æ‚Å min ‚Ŗ mun ‚Ę‚¢‚¤‰~O•ź‰¹‚Ö•Ļ‰»‚µ‚½B‚±‚Ģ mun ‚Ķƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒź‚Ģ‰e‹æ‚Å ƒo„ ‚Ę’Ō‚ē‚źAwoman ‚Ę‚Č‚Į‚½B‚µ‚©‚µA•””Œ`‚Ķ mwn ‚Ģ‰e‹æ‚š‚¤‚Æ‚Č‚©‚Į‚½‚Ģ‚ŁAmin ‚Ģ‚Ü‚Ü•Ū‚½‚ź‚½‚ŖA’ŌŽš‚¾‚Æ‚Ķ’P”Œ`‚Ģ‰e‹æ‚š‚¤‚Æ‚Ä women ‚É•Ļ‚¦‚ē‚ź‚½B


i’Ē‹Lj

‰ŗü•”‚É‚Ā‚¢‚āA–x“c—²ˆźę¶‚É‚ę‚鎟‚Ģ‹LŽ–‚Ķ’†‰pŒźŠś‚ĢŽŹŽš¶‚É‚ę‚é minim avoidance ‚É‚ę‚é‚ĘŽw“E‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

œ woman ‚Ģ”­‰¹‚Ę’ŌŽš


posted by Īč —zˆź at 14:40 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2013”N07ŒŽ26“ś

Žåß‚ɂ؂Ƃ鉼’č–@‚ĢŽg—piŠč–]‚š•\‚·ź‡j


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Ž„‚½‚æ‚ŖS‚Ģ’†‚ŁAŒ’NEK•ŸE¬Œ÷‚Č‚ĒA‹FŠč‚·‚鎖•æ‚šŒ¾‚¢•\‚·•¶‚š‹FŠč•¶‚ĘŒÄ‚ń‚Å‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‹FŠč•¶‚ĶŒĆ•¶‘Ģ‚ŁA“Æ—l‚Ģ“ą—e‚Ķ hope ‚ā wish ‚š—p‚¢‚Ä•\Œ»‚·‚é‚Ģ‚ŖŒ»Ż‚Å‚ĶŽ©‘R‚Å‚·B

Œˆ‚܂蕶‹å‚šœ‚«A“śķ—pŒź‚Ę‚µ‚Ä‚Ķ‘½‚­—p‚¢‚ē‚ź‚Č‚¢‚Ģ‚Å‚·‚ŖA

‰¼’č–@‚Ģ‘ĢŒn‚Ģ—‰š‚Ģ[‰»‚ĘŒĆ‚¢‰pŒź‚Ģ“Ē‰š‚Ģ•Ö‹X‚Ģ‚½‚߁A

ŒÅ’肵‚½•\Œ»‚Å‚ ‚č‚²‚­“ĮŽź‚ČŒ^‚Ģ•\Œ»‚Å‚ ‚é‚Ę‚Ø’f‚肵‚½ć‚Å

‹FŠč•¶‚š‚±‚±‚ňµ‚¤‚±‚Ę‚É‚µ‚Ü‚·B

–

‹FŠč•¶‚Ķ‚QŽķ—Ž‚É‘å•Ź‚·‚邱‚Ę‚Ŗ‚Å‚«‚Ü‚·B

ˆź‚Ā‚ĶŒ»Ż‚Ü‚½‚Ķ–¢—ˆ‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚Ä

u‚±‚¤‚ ‚Į‚Ä‚Ł‚µ‚¢v

‚ĢˆÓ‚š•\‚·‚ą‚Ģ‚ŁA

‚ą‚¤ˆź‚Ā‚ĶŒ»Ż‚Ü‚½‚Ķ‰ß‹Ž‚ĢŽ–ŽĄ‚É”½‚µA

u‚±‚¤‚ ‚Į‚Ä‚Ł‚µ‚©‚Į‚½‚Ģ‚Ɂv

‚ĢˆÓ‚š•\‚·‚ą‚Ģ‚Å‚·B

‚»‚µ‚āA‚¢‚ø‚ź‚Ģź‡‚ąAS‚Ģ’†‚ĢŽ–•æi‹F‚č‚ĢSj‚Ģ•\–¾‚Å‚ ‚čA

‚»‚ź‚š•¶–@ć‚Å–¾‚ē‚©‚ÉŽ¦‚·‚½‚ß‚É

“®ŽŒ‚Ķ‰¼’č–@‚š—p‚¢‚é‚Ģ‚Å‚·‚ĖB

‚Ü‚½A‚Ó‚Ā‚¤A‘‚«Œ¾—t‚Å‚ĶA•¶––‚É g!h ‚š•t‚Æ‚Ü‚·B

–

‚Ü‚ø‚ĶAŒ»Ż‚Ü‚½‚Ķ–¢—ˆ‚ÉŠÖ‚µ‚āu‚Š‚½‚·‚ē‚ČŠč‚¢v‚š•\‚·ź‡‚©‚ēŒ©‚Ä‚Ż‚Ü‚µ‚傤B

‚±‚Ģź‡‚ĶA‚Ó‚Ā‚¤AŽåŒź‚š•¶“Ŗ‚É—§‚ĂāA‰¼’č–@Œ»Ż‚Ģ“®ŽŒ‚šqŒź‚ɐ˜‚¦‚Ä•\‚µ‚Ü‚·B

Œ»‘ć‰pŒź‚Å‚Ķ


God save the Queen!
i_—l‚Ŗ—‰¤‚šŽē‚ē‚¹‚½‚Ü‚ķ‚ń‚±‚Ę‚šIj

Long live the Queen!
i—‰¤•Ć‰ŗ‚Ŗ’·¶‚«‚³‚ź‚ń‚±‚Ę‚šIj



‚Ģ‚ꂤ‚Ȑ¬‹å‚É‚Ģ‚ŻŽc‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚āA

ˆź”Ź‚É‚Ķ‰¼’č–@‚Ģ‘ć—p‚Ę‚µ‚ď•“®ŽŒ‚Ģ may ‚š—p‚¢‚Ü‚·B


May peace prevail on Earth!
i¢ŠE‚Ŗ•½˜a‚Å‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ꂤ‚Ɂj

May you find true happiness in your life together!
i‚Ø‚Ó‚½‚č‚Ģl¶‚É‚Ł‚ń‚Ę‚¤‚Ģ‚µ‚ ‚ķ‚¹‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·‚ꂤ‚Ɂj



‚±‚Ģ‚ꂤ‚ɁA‚±‚Ģź‡Amay ‚Ķ‚¢‚Ā‚ąŽåŒź‚ę‚č‚ą‘O‚É—§‚æ‚Ü‚·B

ŽŸ‚Ķ Anthony Trollopei1815–82j‚Ģģ•iiOrley Farmj‚ÉŒ©‚ē‚ź‚é—¼Œ`•¹—p‚Ģ—į‚Å‚·B


God help her; May God help her!

–

‘±‚¢‚āAŒ»Ż‚Ü‚½‚Ķ‰ß‹Ž‚ĢŽ–ŽĄ‚É”½‚µAu‚±‚¤‚ ‚Į‚Ä‚Ł‚µ‚©‚Į‚½‚Ģ‚Ɂv‚Ę‚¢‚¤Žv‚¢‚š•\‚·ź‡‚šŒ©‚Ä‚Ż‚Ü‚µ‚傤B

‚±‚Ģź‡AŒ»Ż‚Å‚Ķ I wish ‚Č‚Ē‚Å•¶‚šŲ‚čo‚·‚ķ‚Æ‚Å‚·‚ŖA

­‚µŒĆ‚¢‰pŒź‚Å‚·‚ʁA•¶“Ŗ‚É


Wouldithatj

Wish to Godithatj



‚Č‚Ē‚š’u‚«A

Œć‘±‚·‚éß‚É‚Ø‚¢‚āA

Œ»Ż‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é“ą—e‚Å‚ ‚ź‚Ī‰¼’č–@‰ß‹Ž‚šA

‰ß‹Ž‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é“ą—e‚Å‚ ‚ź‚Ī‰¼’č–@‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹‚š

qŒź‚É—p‚¢‚邱‚Ę‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B


Would that I had a brother or sister!
iŒZ’ķ‚āŽo–…‚Ŗ‚¢‚½‚ē‚ĘŽv‚¤j

Wish to God that I had never said that!
iŽ„‚Ķ‚»‚ń‚Č‚±‚Ę‚šŒ¾‚ķ‚Č‚Æ‚ź‚Ī‚ę‚©‚Į‚½‚ĘŒć‰÷‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·j



‚Č‚ØA”@ć‚Ģź‡‚É‚Ø‚Æ‚é Would, Wish ‚Ķ I would, I wish ‚ĢˆÓ–”‚ŁA

would ‚Ķ‚»‚źŽ©gŠł‚ɉ¼’č–@‚Å‚ ‚čA

would rather ‚Ģ would ‚Ę“Æ‚¶B

ŒĆŒź‚Łu–]‚ŽA—~‚·‚év‚šˆÓ–”‚·‚é“®ŽŒ will ‚Ģ‰¼’č–@‰ß‹Ž‚Č‚Ģ‚Å‚·‚ĖB


i’Ē‹L‚Pj

–{‹LŽ–‚ĢŽ·•M‚ɍŪ‚µA×]ˆķ‹Lw‰p•¶–@”Ę_xiŽĀč‘—сA1993”NAp.158-60j‚šŽQĘ‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½B


i’Ē‹L‚Qj

‘å’Ė‚MwƒVƒFƒCƒNƒXƒsƒA‹y¹‘‚Ģ‰pŒźxiŒ¤‹†ŽŠA1967”NAp.124j‚ę‚čˆų‚«‚Ü‚·BiŠæŽš‚ĶVŽš‘Ģ‚ɁA‰¼–¼‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰¼–¼Œ­‚¢‚ɉü‚ß‚Ä‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·Bj

ŒĆ‘ć‰pŒź‚É‚ ‚Į‚Ä‚ĶAŠ†‚ąŒ»‘ć‚ĢƒhƒCƒcŒź‚Ģ”@‚­‰¼’č–@‚ĢŽg—p‚ĶA•p”É‚Å‚ ‚Į‚½‚ŖAŒ»‘ć‚Ģ‰pŒź‚Å‚ĶAŒ»ŻŒ`‚Ģ gbe,h ‰ß‹ŽŒ`‚Ģ gwereh ‚šœ‚­‚ʁAˆź”Ź“®ŽŒ‚Å‚ĶAŽOlĢ’P”‚ĢŒ»ŻŒ`‚É g-sh ‚Č‚éŒź”ö‚š‚Ę‚ē‚Č‚¢Œ`‚Ę‚µ‚āA‹Ķ‚©‚É‚»‚ĢŽc‰e‚šŽ~‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ɉ߂¬‚Č‚¢B‘R‚ą‚±‚ź‚ē‚Ģ‹Ķ‚©‚ČŒ`‚ąAŽĄŪ‚Ķ—]‚čŽg—p‚³‚ź‚øA‘½‚­‚Ģź‡A–ŽĄ–@‚ĢŒ`‚š—p‚¢‚Ä‹‚éB‘R‚é‚ɃVƒFƒCƒNƒXƒsƒAŽž‘ć‚ĶAŒ»‘ć‚ÉŠr‚ׂé‚ʁA‚Ü‚¾‚Ü‚¾‰¼’č–@‚Ŗ‰Ā¬‚čŽg—p‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚±‚ź‚ĶAŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚ĘƒVƒFƒCƒNƒXƒsƒA‚ā¹‘‚Ģ‰pŒź‚Ģd—v‚ȍ·ˆŁ‚Ę‚¢‚ķ‚Č‚­‚Ä‚Ķ‚Č‚ē‚ŹB‰¼’č–@‚ĢŠ‘Ž‚ĶAŠČŒ‰‚Č‚ē‚ń‚Ę‚·‚錾Œź•\Œ»‚Ģˆź”Ź“IŒXŒü‚É‚ę‚é‚Ģ‚Å‚ ‚é‚ŖA‚»‚ĢŒ“ˆö‚Ģˆź‚Ā‚Ę‚µ‚āA”X‚Ģ•“®ŽŒ‚Ģ”­’B‚šŒ©“¦‚µ‚Ä‚Ķ‚Č‚ē‚ŹB‘¦‚æAĢ‚Č‚ē‚Ī‰¼’č–@‚š—p‚¢‚Ä•\Œ»‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Ę‚š•“®ŽŒ‚Ŗ‚»‚Ģ”C–±‚š‘ćs‚·‚é‚ꂤ‚É‚Č‚Į‚½‚Ģ‚Å‚ ‚éB‚¾‚©‚ēA‰¼’č–@‚ĢŽg—p‚ĶA“ÆŽž‚ɏ•“®ŽŒ‚ĢŽg—p‚Ę•¹‚¹l‚¦‚é‚ׂ«‚Å‚ ‚éB

‚Č‚ØA•¶’†‚Ģu–ŽĄ–@v‚Ę‚Ķu’¼ą–@v‚Ģ‚±‚Ę‚šŽw‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B


i’Ē‹L‚Rj

ˆĄ“”’å—YwŒ»‘ć‰p•¶–@u‹`xiŠJ‘ńŽŠA2005”NAp.365j‚Ķ

•·‚«Žč‚É•s—˜‰v‚É‚Č‚é‹FŠč‚ĶuŽōęfE‚Ģ‚Ģ‚µ‚čv‚É“]Š·‚·‚é

‚Ę‚µ‚Ä Damn you! ‚ā Fuck you! ‚Č‚Ē‚š—įŽ¦‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‚Ü‚½AˆĄ“”’å—Yw‰p•¶–@‚š’T‚éxiŠJ‘ńŽŠA2007”NAp.99j‚É‚ąŒ¾‹y‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B


posted by Īč —zˆź at 14:34 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

ˆų—p‚Ģ”wŒi‚É‚ ‚錾Œźó‹µ


General Prologue.JPG

iƒNƒŠƒbƒN‚·‚é‚ĘŠg‘債‚Ü‚·j



wƒJƒ“ƒ^ƒxƒŠ[•ØŒźxiThe Canterbury Tales, mainly 1387-88j‚Ģƒvƒƒ[ƒO‚ÉŽŸ‚Ģˆźß‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·BiŁ–ó‚š•t‚µ‚Ü‚·Bj


And Frenssh she spak ful faire and fetisly,
After the scole of Stratford atte Bowe,
For Frenssh of Parys was to hire unknowe.

‚»‚µ‚Ä”Ž—‚Ķƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒź‚šŽĄ‚É‚¤‚Ü‚­A‚Ü‚½—D‰ė‚ɘb‚µ‚½A
Stratford-at-Bow ‚Ģ—¬‹V‚ɏ]‚Į‚āA
‚Ę‚¢‚¤‚Ģ‚ąAƒpƒŠ‚Ģƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒź‚Ķ”Ž—‚É’m‚ē‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚Č‚©‚Į‚½‚Ģ‚¾‚©‚ēB



prioress ‚Ģ‚±‚Ę‚š•`ŽŹ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éƒV[ƒ“‚Å‚·‚ŖA

”Ž—‚Ģ˜b‚·uStratford-at-Bow ‚Ģ—¬‹V‚ɏ]‚Įv‚½ƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒź‚Ę‚Ķ

Anglo-NormaniNorman French, Anglo-FrenchjA‚·‚Č‚ķ‚æ‰p‘•—‚Ģƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒź‚šŽw‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

Norman Conquesti1066”NjˆČ—ˆA‰p‘‚Ģć—¬ŠK‹‰‚Ģ‘ęˆź‚Ģ‚±‚Ę‚Ī‚Ķƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒź‚Å‚µ‚½‚ŖA

‚»‚ź‚Ķ Central FrenchA‚·‚Č‚ķ‚æƒpƒŠ‚š’†S‚Ę‚µ‚Ęb‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚鏃ˆ‚Ģƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒź‚Å‚Ķ‚Č‚©‚Į‚½‚Ģ‚Å‚·‚ĖB

ć‚Ģˆźß‚ĶACentral French ‚š’m‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚é Chaucer ‚Ŗ“s‰ļ‚Ģ‚±‚Ę‚Ī‚Å‚Ķ‚Č‚­‚Ä“cŽÉ‚Ģ•ūŒ¾iAnglo-Frenchj‚š˜b‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éŽŅ‚š”ē“÷‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚鏼–Ź‚Č‚Ģ‚Å‚·B

–

ˆČ‰ŗ‚ÉŒźŠw–Ź‚©‚ē‚Ģ‰šą‚š•t‚µ‚Ä‚Ø‚«‚Ü‚·B

” spak ‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚É’€Œź–ó‚·‚ź‚Ī spoke ‚Å‚·Bspeak ‚Ģ‰ß‹ŽŒ`‚Å‚·‚ŖAŽĄ‚Ķ‚±‚Ģ•ū‚Ŗ³‚µ‚¢ŒĆŒ`‚š“`‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·BŒ»s‚Ģ spoke ‚Ķ‰ß‹Ž•ŖŽŒ‚Ģ‰e‹æ‚É‚ę‚Į‚Ä‚Å‚«‚½‚ą‚Ģ‚Č‚Ģ‚Å‚·‚ĖB—Ž—į‚É draveidrovej, tareitorej, bareiborej, wareiworej‚Č‚Ē‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B‚Č‚ØA¹‘‚É‚ą“Æ‚¶Œ`‚ŖŒ©‚ē‚ź‚Ü‚·BˆČćA‘å’Ė‚MwƒVƒFƒCƒNƒXƒsƒA‹y¹‘‚Ģ‰pŒźxiŒ¤‹†ŽŠA1967”NApp.110-1j‚ÉŠī‚Ć‚¢‚Ä‹L‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½B

” ful faire and fetisly ‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚É’€Œź–ó‚·‚ź‚Ī fully well and elegantly ‚Å‚·B“–Žž‚Ķ -ly ‚Ģ‘¼A-e ‚ą•›ŽŒŒź”ö‚Č‚Ģ‚Å‚µ‚½B‚Č‚ØAŽ›ąV–F—Y •Ņw‰pŒźŒźŒ¹Ž«“Tikü”ŁjxiŒ¤‹†ŽŠA1999”Nj‚Ģ fetish ‚Ģ€ip.495j‚É‚ę‚ź‚ĪA

Œ»Ż”pŒź‚Ę‚Č‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚é☨featousiƒME fetisjuI‚Ż‚ɍģ‚ē‚ź‚½A—§”h‚ȁv‚Ķ OF faitis ‚©‚ē‚ĢŽŲ“üŒź‚ŁAŒ»Ż‚Å‚ą•ūŒ¾‚É featish elegant, pretty good ‚Ę‚µ‚ÄŽc‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚éB

‚Ę‚Ģ‚±‚ʁBŒĆŒź‚Ģ feati“K“–‚ȁA‚Ó‚³‚ķ‚µ‚¢GŽčŪ‚Ģ‚¢‚¢AI–­‚ȁA‚¤‚Ü‚¢j‚Ę‚ąŠÖ˜A‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B

” scole ‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚É’€Œź–ó‚·‚ź‚Ī schooli—¬‹VA—¬”hj‚Å‚·B

” Stratford atte Bowe ‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚É’€Œź–ó‚·‚ź‚Ī Stratford-at-Bow ‚Å‚·Batte ‚Ķ at theiӕt þej‚Ģ‚Ā‚ø‚Ü‚Į‚Ä‚Å‚«‚½‚ą‚Ģ‚Å‚·B‚æ‚Č‚Ż‚ɁA‚±‚ź‚Ŗ”“ś‚Ģ at best ‚Č‚Ē‚Ģ at ‚Ģ‚ą‚Ę‚É‚Č‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B‚±‚Ģ at ‚É‚Ķ the ‚Ŗ‚·‚Å‚ÉŠÜ‚Ü‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ģ‚Å‚·‚ŖA‚»‚ź‚Ŗ–Y‚ź‚ē‚ź‚Ä at the best ‚Č‚Ē‚Ę‚¢‚¤•\Œ»‚Ŗ‚³‚ē‚É‘¢‚ē‚ź‚½‚ķ‚Æ‚Å‚·B

” hir ‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚É’€Œź–ó‚·‚ź‚Ī her ‚Å‚·B

” unknowe ‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚É’€Œź–ó‚·‚ź‚Ī unknown ‚Å‚·B


i’Ē‹L‚Pj

ˆų—p‚ĶwƒJƒ“ƒ^ƒxƒŠ[•ØŒźx‚Ģ–{•¶‚Ķ‘åŽRrˆźwƒJƒ“ƒ^ƒxƒŠ[•ØŒźEƒvƒƒ[ƒOxiŽĀč‘—сA1931”NApp.5-6ill.124-6jj‚ę‚čs‚¢‚Ü‚µ‚½B

i’Ē‹L‚Qj

Œcœä‘åŠw‚Ģ–x“c—²ˆźę¶‚Ģ‰^‰c‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚éƒuƒƒO‚ŁAˆų—p‚Ģ”wŒi‚É‚ ‚錾Œźó‹µ‚É‘Ī‚·‚éÄ•]‰æ‚šŽå’£‚·‚鐹‚ŖŠ‰ī‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

œ Prioress ‚Ģ Anglo-French ‚Ģ’nˆŹ‚Ķ‚»‚ź‚Ł‚Ē’į‚­‚Č‚©‚Į‚½



posted by Īč —zˆź at 10:46 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

’†¢ˆČ—ˆ‚ĢA•¶ĶŒźEŠwpŒź‚Ę‚µ‚Ä‚Ģƒ‰ƒeƒ“Œź‚ĢˆŹ’ui‚ʍ‘Œź‚É‘Ī‚·‚é—ņ“™Š“j


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’†¢ˆČ—ˆ‚ĢA•¶ĶŒźEŠwpŒź‚Ę‚µ‚Ä‚Ģƒ‰ƒeƒ“Œź‚ĢˆŹ’u‚ĶA‹ß‘ć‰pŒź‚Ģ‰Šś‚É‚Č‚Į‚Ä‚ąˆų‚«‘±‚¢‚ÄŒ©‚ē‚ź‚Ü‚µ‚½B

Restoration Šśi1660-1700j‚ĢŒQ¬Žl‚Å‚ ‚é Edmund Walleri1605-1687j‚Ķ

1664”N‚ÉŒjŠ„Žl‚Ģ Dryden ‚Ģ‰ßÜ‚š“¾‚čD•]‚š”Ž‚µ‚½l•Ø‚Å‚·‚ŖA

ŽŸ‚Ģ‚ꂤ‚Čˆźß‚šŽc‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‚±‚Ģˆźß‚ĶA‚±‚ĢŠŌ‚ĢĮ‘§‚š•ØŒź‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·BiŁ–ó‚š•t‚µ‚Ü‚·Bj


But who can hope his lines should long
Last in a daily changing tongue?
While they are new, envy prevails;
And as that dies, our language fails.
Poets who lasting marble seek,
Must carve in Latin, or Greek;
We write in sand, our language grows,
And, like the tide, our work o'erflows.

“śX‚ɈŚ‚č‚ä‚­Œ¾‚Ģ—t‚ɁA‰Ģ‚Ģ’²‚ׂŖ‚Ę‚±‚µ‚¦‚É
’·‚ē‚¦‚ꂤ‚Ę‚ĶA’N‚É‚ą–]‚Ž‚±‚Ę‚Ķ‚Å‚«‚Č‚¢B
‰Ģ‚Ģ’²‚ׂŖV‚µ‚¢‚¤‚æ‚ĶA“i‚Ż‚Ŗ‰QŠŖ‚­B
“i‚Ż‚ŖĮ‚¦‚Ä‚ąA‚ķ‚ŖŒ¾‚Ģ—t‚Ķ•ö‚ź‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤B
’·‚­‚ą‚Ā‘嗝Ī‚š‹‚߂鎍l‚½‚æ‚ĶA
ƒ‰ƒeƒ“Œź‚©ƒMƒŠƒVƒƒŒź‚ŏ‘‚©‚Ė‚Ī‚Č‚ē‚ŹB
‚ķ‚ź‚ķ‚ź‚ĶA^»‚ÉŽš‚š‘‚«AŒ¾‚Ģ—t‚Ŗ‘‚¹‚Ī
ć‚°’Ŗ‚Ģ”@‚­A‚ķ‚Ŗ‰Ģ‚š—¬‚µ•ö‚µ‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤B



‚±‚Ģ‚ꂤ‚ɁA•Ļ‰»‚ĢŒƒ‚µ‚¢‘Œź‚Å‚ĶA‚¹‚Į‚©‚­Ž‚š‘‚¢‚Ä‚ąŒć¢‚Å“Ē‚Ü‚ź‚Č‚­‚Č‚Į‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤‚©‚ēA

‚Ž‚µ‚ėƒ‰ƒeƒ“EƒMƒŠƒVƒƒ‚ĢŒĆ“TŒź‚ŏ‘‚¢‚½•ū‚Ŗ‚ę‚¢‚ʐą‚­‚ķ‚Æ‚Å‚·‚ĖB

’†¢ˆČ—ˆ‚ĢA•¶ĶŒźEŠwpŒź‚Ę‚µ‚Ä‚Ģƒ‰ƒeƒ“Œź‚ĢˆŹ’u‚Ŗ‚±‚ĢŽ‚É’[“I‚É”½‰f‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ĘŒ¾‚¦‚Ü‚·B



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“Æ—l‚ĢŠė‹@ˆÓŽÆ‚ĶA‰p‘‚ĢŽl Alexander Popei1688-1744j‚É‚ę‚鎟‚Ģˆźß‚É‚ąŒ©‚ē‚ź‚Ü‚·BiŁ–ó‚š•t‚µ‚Ü‚·Bj


Our sons their fathers' failing language see,
And such as Chaucer is, shall Dryden be.

‚¹‚Ŗ‚ź‚Ķe•ƒ‚Ģ•ö‚ź‚ä‚­Œ¾‚Ģ—t‚šŒ©‚äB
ƒ`ƒ‡[ƒT[”“ś‚©‚­‚ ‚邲‚Ę‚­Aƒhƒ‰ƒCƒfƒ“–¾“ś‚©‚­‚Č‚ē‚ŽB



‚±‚±‚Å‚ĶAƒ`ƒ‡[ƒT[‚Ģ‰pŒź‚Ŗ•Ļ‚ķ‚Į‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Į‚Ä‚ę‚­“Ē‚ß‚Č‚¢‚ꂤ‚ɁA

ƒhƒ‰ƒCƒfƒ“‚Ģ‰pŒź‚ąŒć¢“Ē‚Ü‚ź‚Č‚­‚Č‚é‹°‚ź‚Ŗ‚ ‚é‚Ę•s•½‚šq‚ׂĂ¢‚Ü‚·B

‰pŒź‚Ģ—šŽj‚É‚Ø‚¢‚āA‰p‘lŽ©g‚Ŗ‘Œź‚É‘Ī‚·‚é—ņ“™Š“‚š‹­‚­—L‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½ŽžŠś‚Ŗ‚ ‚Į‚½‚Ę‚¢‚¤‚Ģ‚ĶˆÓŠO‚Å‚·‚ĖB


i’Ē‹L‚Pj

BaconiNovum Organum Scientiarum, 1620j‚ā Miltoni­Ž”˜_‘ˆ‚Ģ•Łj‚Č‚Ē‚ąAƒ‰ƒeƒ“Œź‚Å•¶Ķ‚š‚ą‚Ģ‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚µ‚½B


i’Ē‹L‚Qj

Edmund Waller ‚Ø‚ę‚Ń Alexander Pope ‚É‚ę‚éˆźß‚Ķ R.F.Jones, The Triumph of the English LanguageiStanford University Press, 1953, pp.263-4j‚ę‚čĢ‚č‚Ü‚µ‚½B


i’Ē‹L‚Rj

Edmund Waller ‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‹Lq‚ĶāV“”—EwƒCƒMƒŠƒX•¶ŠwŽj@‰ü’ł‘•ā‘ęŒÜ”ŁxiŒ¤‹†ŽŠA1974”NApp.200-1j‚ÉŠī‚Ć‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B


i’Ē‹L‚Sj

R.F.Jones, The Triumph of the English LanguageiStanford University Press, 1953, p.256j‚ę‚čˆų‚«‚Ü‚·BiŁ–ó‚š•t‚µ‚Ü‚·Bj

Ben Jonson's belief that in affecting the ancients Spenser wrote no language
iƒXƒyƒ“ƒT[‚ĶĢ‚Ģl‚š‹CŽę‚Į‚ď‘‚¢‚½‚Æ‚ź‚Ē‚ąAŒ¾—t‚É‚Č‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚Č‚©‚Į‚½‚Ęƒxƒ“EƒWƒ‡ƒ“ƒ\ƒ“‚Ŗl‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚ʁj


‚±‚±‚Å‚¢‚¤ the ancientsiĢ‚Ģlj‚Ę‚Ķ Chaucer ‚Ģ‚±‚Ę‚šŽw‚µ‚Ü‚·B

Edmund Spenseri?1552-99j‚Ķ

uChaucer ˆČŒć‚±‚ĢŽž‘ć‚Ü‚Å‚ĢÅ‘厍lviāV“”—EwƒCƒMƒŠƒX•¶ŠwŽj@‰ü’ł‘•ā‘ęŒÜ”ŁxiŒ¤‹†ŽŠA1974”NAp.85jj

‚Ę‚³‚źAThe Shepheardes Calender ‚ā Faerie Queene ‚Å—L–¼‚Ȑl•Ø‚Å‚·B

Chaucer ‚š‘øŒh‚µA”Ž‚Ģ‘‚«•ū‚ŏ‘‚«AŒĆŒź‚Ģ•œŠˆ‚š}‚Į‚½‚Ģ‚Å‚µ‚½‚ŖA

‚±‚Ģˆų—p‚©‚ēA16¢‹I‚É‚Ķ‚·‚Å‚É Chaucer ‚Ģ ‚Ģ‰pŒź‚Ķ—‰š‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚Č‚©‚Į‚½‚±‚Ę‚Ŗ‚ķ‚©‚č‚Ü‚·B

‚Č‚ØABen Jonsoni1572-1637j‚Ķ‰p‘‚ĢŒ€ģ‰ĘEŽlE”į•]‰Ę‚ŁA

āV“”—EwƒCƒMƒŠƒX•¶ŠwŽj@‰ü’ł‘•ā‘ęŒÜ”ŁxiŒ¤‹†ŽŠA1974”NAp.97j‚É‚ę‚é‚ʁA

ƒ‰ƒeƒ“•¶Šw‚ɐø’Ź‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚Ģ‚ŁALatin poets ‚Ę“Æ—l‚ÉŽŒ`”ü‚šd‚ń‚¶A‚Ü‚½‹³ŒP“IŒXŒü‚Ŗ‚ ‚Į‚½B‚»‚µ‚Ä‚»‚Ģ“ĮŽæ‚ĶA‘ę17¢‹I’†—t‚É‚ĶˆźŽž–Y‚ź‚ē‚ź‚½‚ŖADryden ‚É“`‚ķ‚čA‚Š‚¢‚Ä‚ĶŒĆ“T”hŽl‚ɉe‹æ‚µ‚½B

‚Ę‚³‚ź‚él•Ø‚Å‚·B


posted by Īč —zˆź at 09:26 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2013”N07ŒŽ25“ś

Œ¾Œź‚ɂ؂Ƃ鉹•Ļ‰»‚Ģ—vˆö


Language.JPG



Œ¾Œź‚ɂ؂Ƃ鉹•Ļ‰»‚Ģ—vˆö‚É‚Ā‚¢‚āAOtto Jespersen, Language: Its Nature, Development, and OriginiLondon: G. Allen & Unwin, ltd., 1922, pp.260ff.j‚ÉŠī‚Ć‚¢‚Ä‹L‚µ‚Ü‚·B

–

ķ‘ˆ‚ā“®—‚Č‚Ē‚Őe‚Ŗ—Ž‚æ’…‚¢‚ÄŽq‹Ÿ‚ĢŒ¾—t‚Č‚Ē‚š\•Ŗ‚É‚µ‚±‚Ž‚±‚Ę‚Ŗ‚Å‚«‚Č‚¢‚Ę‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·‚ʁA

‚»‚ĢŒ‹‰Ź‚ĶAŽq‹Ÿ‚Ģ”­‰¹‚Ģ^Ž—‚Ŗ•s³Šm‚Ę‚Č‚čA‚µ‚½‚Ŗ‚Į‚āAŒ¾Œź‚Ķ‘‚­•Ļ‚ķ‚邱‚Ę‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

‰pŒź‚Ģ—šŽj‚É‚Ø‚¢‚āA—į‚¦‚ĪA’†‰pŒź‚©‚ē‹ß‘ć‰pŒź‚ɈŚ‚é‚Ę‚«‚É‚ĶA

1339”N‚©‚ē1453”N‚É‹y‚Ō‰p•§ķ‘ˆA

14¢‹I’† ‚Ģ•Ž€•aithe Black DeathA‚Č‚Ø‚±‚ź‚ĶlŒū‚ĢŽO•Ŗ‚Ģˆź‚šŽE‚µ‚½A‚ĘŒ¾‚ķ‚ź‚Ü‚·jA

Wat Tyleri1381”NƒJƒ“ƒ^ƒxƒŠ[‚āƒƒ“ƒhƒ“‚Å‹N‚±‚Į‚½”½‹tŽ–Œ‚ĢŽw“±ŽŅj‚ā Jack Cadei1450”N‚ĢƒPƒ“ƒg”½—Ž–Œ‚ĢŽw“±ŽŅj‚Ģˆź„A

åKåNķ‘ˆi1455-85”Nj‚Č‚Ē‚ŁA

—Ž‚æ’…‚¢‚½‰Ę’ė¶Šˆ‚³‚¦‚Å‚«‚Č‚¢ó‹µ‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚µ‚½B

‚Ü‚½A19¢‹I‚ɁA’¬‚ā“s‰ļ‚Ģ“śķ‚Ģ”Ś‘­Œź‚Ŗ‹³—{l‚ĢŒ¾Œź‚Ęˆį‚Į‚Ä‚«‚½‚Ģ‚ĶA

˜J“­ŽŅ‚ĢŽq‹Ÿ‚Ŗ‚Ż‚¶‚߂Ȑ¶Šˆ‚š‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Ę‚É‹Aˆö‚µ‚Ü‚·B

•s³Šm‚Č–Ķ•ķ‚ŖAe‚©‚ēŽq‚ցA‘·‚Ö‚Ę‘ćXd‚Č‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚­‚ʁA

‰‚ß‚Ķ±×‚Čˆį‚¢‚Å‚ ‚Į‚½‚ą‚Ģ‚ŖA‚Ā‚¢‚É‚Ķ”ńķ‚É‘å‚«‚ȍ·‚Ę‚Č‚čA‰¹•Ļ‰»‚Ę‚Č‚Į‚āA—šŽjć‚ÉŒ»‚ź‚Ä‚­‚é‚Ģ‚Å‚·‚ĖB


posted by Īč —zˆź at 21:48 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2013”N07ŒŽ24“ś

ƒQƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“”Œ¾Œź‚Ģ\‘¢”äŠr‚©‚ēŒ©‚¦‚é‰pŒź‚Ģ“ĮŽæ


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iƒNƒŠƒbƒN‚·‚é‚ĘŠg‘債‚Ü‚·j


ƒhƒCƒcŒź‚āƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œź‚Č‚Ē‚Ę”ä‚ׂ܂·‚ʁA

‰pŒź‚ĶAŒĆ‰pŒź‚Ģ‹üÜiŒźŒ`•Ļ‰»j‚šŽø‚Į‚Ä

‘‡“IŒ¾Œźisynthetic languagej‚©‚ē•ŖĶ“IŒ¾Œźianalytic languagej‚ւʐ„ˆŚ‚µ‚½

‚Ę‚ę‚­Žw“E‚³‚ź‚Ü‚·B

—į‚¦‚ĪAć‚Ģ•\‚šŒ©‚é‚Ę‚ķ‚©‚č‚Ü‚·‚ꂤ‚ɁA

ŒĆ‰pŒź‚ĶŒĀX‚Ģ’PŒź‚Ę‚¢‚¢A•¶‚Ģ‘g‚Ż—§‚Ä‚Ę‚¢‚¢A

“Æ‚¶’į’nƒQƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Œź‚ĢƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œź‚Ę—ŽŽ—‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邾‚Æ‚Å‚Č‚­A

‚’nƒQƒ‹ƒ}ƒ“Œź‚Ģ’¼Œn‚Å‚ ‚éƒhƒCƒcŒź‚Ę‚ą“Ž—‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‚Ę‚±‚ė‚ŖA’PŒź‚ĢŒźŒ`•Ļ‰»‚É’ˆÓ‚µ‚Ä”ä‚ׂ܂·‚ʁA

ŒĆ‰pŒź‚ĶƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œź‚āƒhƒCƒcŒź‚Ę“Æ‚¶‚ꂤ‚ɁA

–¼ŽŒ‚ā‘ć–¼ŽŒ‚É‚ĶA«E”EŠi‚ĢŒźŒ`•Ļ‰»‚Ŗ‚ ‚Į‚½‚µA

Š„ŽŒ‚āŒ`—eŽŒ‚ą‚±‚ź‚ɉž‚¶‚ÄŒźŒ`‚š•Ļ‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚µ‚½B

‚µ‚©‚µAŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚É‚ĶA‚±‚Ģ‚ꂤ‚ČŒźŒ`•Ļ‰»‚Ķ‚Ł‚Ę‚ń‚Ē‚ ‚č‚Ü‚¹‚ńB

‚Ü‚½A“®ŽŒ‚šŒ©‚Ü‚µ‚Ä‚ąAŒĆ‰pŒź‚ĶAlĢE”EŽž§‚É‚ę‚Į‚ÄŒźŒ`‚š•Ļ‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‚»‚ź‚Ķ‚¾‚¢‚½‚¢AƒIƒ‰ƒ“ƒ_Œź‚āƒhƒCƒcŒź‚Č‚Ē‚É‚ąŒ©‚ē‚ź‚邱‚Ę‚Å‚·B

—v‚·‚é‚ɁA”“ś‚Ģ‰pŒź‚©‚ē‚ĶA‹üÜiŒźŒ`•Ļ‰»j‚Ŗ‘å•”•ŖĮŽø‚µ‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¢‚Ü‚µ‚½‚ŖA

‚»‚Ģ‚½‚߁AŒźŒ`‚Ŗ

alda „ old, mannes „ man's, gēafon „gave, sāwon „ saw

‚Ę‚¢‚¤‚ꂤ‚ɁA’Z‚­‚Č‚čA

‚»‚ĢŒ‹‰ŹA‰pŒź‚ĶAˆź–Ź‚É‚Ø‚¢‚āA’P’Ō“IimonosyllabicjŒXŒü‚šŽ¦‚·‚ÉŽŠ‚č‚Ü‚µ‚½B


i’Ē‹Lj

–{‹LŽ–‚Ķ¬—Ń’q‰ź•½w‰pŒźŠwŠT˜_xi“Œ‹ž“°A1955”NApp.331-2j‚ɈĖ‹’‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B


posted by Īč —zˆź at 14:07 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2013”N06ŒŽ22“ś

himself ‚Å‚ ‚é‚ķ‚Æ


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–³—‚©‚ē‚Ź‚±‚Ę‚Å‚·‚ŖAhisself ‚Ę’Ō‚éŠwKŽŅ‚Ķ‘½‚¢‚Å‚·‚ĖB

myself ‚ā yourself, ourselves ‚©‚ē‚Ģ—Ž„‚Å‚µ‚傤B

‚µ‚©‚µAwƒŠ[ƒ_[ƒY‰p˜aŽ«“T@‘ę‚R”ŁxiŒ¤‹†ŽŠA2012”NAp.1128j‚É‚Ø‚¢‚āu•ūŒ¾EŒūŒźv‚Ģƒ‰ƒxƒ‹‚Ŗ“\‚Į‚Ä‚ ‚é‚ꂤ‚ɁA

Œ»‘ć‰pŒź‚Å‚Ķ himself ‚ŖŽå—¬‚Ę‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B

‰pŒźŽj‚šŠw‚Ō‚Ü‚Å‚ĶAŽ„‚ąA‚Č‚ŗ himself ‚Č‚Ģ‚¾‚ė‚¤‚ĘŽv‚Į‚½‚ą‚Ģ‚Å‚µ‚½B

‚±‚Ģ‚ꂤ‚ɁA‚¢‚ķ‚ä‚éÄ‹A‘ć–¼ŽŒ‚É‚Ķ

u–Ś“IŠi‘ć–¼ŽŒ{ selfv‚©‚ē¬‚éŒn—ń‚ʁAuŠ—LŠi{ selfv‚©‚ē¬‚éŒn—ń‚Ę‚Ŗ‚ ‚č

ŠwKŽŅ‚šŽž‚Ę‚µ‚Ä”Y‚Ü‚¹‚é‚ķ‚Æ‚Å‚·‚ŖA

“ń‚Ā‚ĢŒn—ń‚Ŗ‚Ż‚ē‚ź‚闝—R‚É‚Ā‚¢‚Ä‚Ķ

—šŽj“I‚ɏć‘ć‚É‚³‚©‚Ģ‚Ś‚邱‚Ę‚ÅA

‚ ‚é‚¢‚Ķ

S—Šw“I‚Ģ—§ź‚É—§‚Ā‚±‚Ę‚ÅA

ą–¾‚·‚邱‚Ę‚Ŗ‚Å‚«‚Ü‚·B

r–Ųˆź—Y ŠÄCE…’¹Šģ‹ŖE•Ä‘qć^ ’˜w’†‰pŒź‚Ģ‰•ą|‰pŒźŠw“ü–åuĄE‘ę‚TŠŖxi‰p’ŖŽŠƒtƒFƒjƒbƒNƒXA1997”NAp.37j‚ę‚čˆų‚«‚Ü‚·B


OE ‚Å‚Ķ self ‚Ķu“Æ‚¶v‚ĢˆÓ–”‚ĢŒ`—eŽŒ‚ŁA–¼ŽŒ‚ā‘ć–¼ŽŒ‚šŒć‚©‚ēCü‚µ‚½B‚±‚ź‚Ķ–Ś“IŠi‚Ģ‘ć–¼ŽŒ‚Ę‹¤‚É‹N‚±‚邱‚Ę‚Ŗ‘½‚©‚Į‚½B‚±‚±‚©‚ēu–Ś“IŠi‘ć–¼ŽŒ{ selfvŒ`‚Ŗ ME ‚É‚Č‚Į‚Ä”­’B‚µ‚½B‚µ‚©‚µAME ‚Ģ ‚É‚Č‚é‚ʁAself ‚Ķ‚ą‚Ķ‚āŒ`—eŽŒ‚Å‚Ķ‚Č‚­–¼ŽŒ‚Ę‚µ‚ĉšŽß‚³‚źŽn‚ß‚½‚Ģ‚ŁA–Ś“IŠi‘ć–¼ŽŒ‚ŖŠ—LŠi‘ć–¼ŽŒ‚É’u‚«Š·‚¦‚ē‚źAmyself, yourself ‚Ģ‚ꂤ‚Č self ‚šCü‚·‚éŒ`‚Ŗ¶‚Ü‚ź‚½B‚±‚ź‚É‚Ķ‚ą‚¤ˆź‚Ā‚Ģl‚¦•ū‚Ŗ‚ ‚éB‚Ā‚Ü‚čAmē self, þē self ‚Ģ”­‰¹‚ŖŽć‚Ü‚Į‚Ä mī self, þī self ‚Ę‚Č‚čA“ÆŽž‚É self ‚Ŗ–¼ŽŒ‚ĘŠ“‚¶‚ē‚ź‚Ä‚«‚Ä myself, thyself ‚Č‚Ē‚Ŗ¶‚¶‚½‚Ę‚·‚é‚ą‚Ģ‚Å‚ ‚éB


posted by Īč —zˆź at 12:29 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2013”N03ŒŽ16“ś

–ŁŽš‚Ģ¬—§‰ß’ö


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‚gDƒzƒƒCƒgƒz[ƒ‹’˜E]ģ‘׈ź˜Y–󒍁w‰pŒź‹³ˆēƒVƒŠ[ƒY12@‰pŒź\‘¢‚ĢŠī–{–ā‘čxi‘åCŠŁA1962”NAp.271j‚ę‚č”õ–Y‚Ģ‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—Æ‚ß‚Ä‚Ø‚«‚Ü‚·B


–ŁŽš‚Ę‚Ķu’Ō‚č‚ɏ‘‚©‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚Ä‚ą”­‰¹‚³‚ź‚Č‚¢Žšv‚Å‚ ‚邱‚Ę‚Ķ‚¢‚¤‚Ü‚Å‚ą‚Č‚¢B–ŁŽš‚š‚»‚Ģ¬—§‰ß’ö‚É‚ę‚Į‚Ä•Ŗ‚Æ‚ź‚ĪAi1j‚©‚Į‚Ä”­‰¹‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚½‚ą‚ĢAi2j‚©‚Į‚Ĉź“x‚ą”­‰¹‚³‚ź‚½‚±‚Ę‚Ģ‚Č‚¢‚ą‚Ģ‚Ŗ‚ ‚čA‚±‚Ģi2j‚É‚ĶiajŒź‚ĢŒźŒ¹‚šŽ¦‚·‚½‚ß‚É‚ ‚鎞Šś‚É‘}“ü‚³‚ź‚½‚ą‚ĢAibj”­‰¹‚Ģˆį‚¢‚šŽ¦‚·•WŽÆ•„“I‚Č‚ą‚Ģ‚Ę‚µ‚Ä•t—^‚³‚ź‚½‚ą‚Ģ‚Ŗ‚ ‚éB


i’Ē‹Lj

Œcœä‘åŠw‚Ģ–x“c—²ˆźę¶‚Ŗ‰^‰c‚³‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚éuhellog`‰pŒźŽjƒuƒƒOv‚Ķ“ś ‚©‚ē‘½‚­‚šŠw‚Ī‚¹‚Ä‚¢‚½‚¾‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚éƒEƒFƒuƒTƒCƒg‚Å‚·BˆČ‰ŗ‚Ģ‹LŽ–‚ąŽQl‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚·B

œ Žq‰¹Žš‚Ģ–ŁŽš



posted by Īč —zˆź at 06:33 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2012”N12ŒŽ27“ś

legalistic double-ups ‚Ę–z•ś‚ČŒ¾—t—V‚Ń


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legalistic double-ups ‚É‚Ā‚¢‚āARobertson Cochrane, Wordplay: Origins, Meanings, and Usage of the English LanguageiUniversity of Toronto Press, 1996, pp.23-4j‚©‚ē”õ–Y‚Ģ‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—Æ‚ß‚Ä‚Ø‚«‚Ü‚·B


Many of the legalistic double-ups are left over from the multilingual nature of England following the Norman Conquest of 1066. The common people spoke English, and the upper crust spoke Norman French, while laws and church matters were in Latin. So many common expressions were rendered in a mixture of English and Frenchior Latinj. Breaking and entering is an obvious and well-known example of mixing Old English and French words that mean the same thing.

Legal documents, and to some extent our everyday speech and writing, still bristle with these ageing bilingual barnacles|last will and testament, bequeath and devise, true and correct, fit and proper, free and clear, save and except, peace and quiet, goods and chattels.

i’†—Ŗj

By hook or by crook, time and tideias in Yuletide, or season, or timejwait for no one. What with one thing and another, we pick and choose at odds and ends. Remaining outwardly calm, cool, and collected, we struggle with might and main to be fair and square, to tread the straightionce straitjand narrow path and avoid racjiread wrack or wreckjand ruin. But when push comes to shove, and we've looked at all the whys and wherefores, it's best to have a last will and testamentithey were once distinctjso that our heirs and successors won't have to slug it out with other kith and kin.

And with that, before somebody smites me hip and thigh, I'd better cease, desist, and sign off.



i’Ē‹Lj

‘ģ••vw–@—„‰pŒź‚ĢŠī‘b’mŽÆxi¤Ž––@–±Œ¤‹†‰ļA1992”NApp.192-9j‚ĶA–@—„—pŒź‚É‚Ø‚¢‚āAuŽĄŪ‚Ģ•K—v‚©‚ē¶‚Ü‚ź‚½‰p•§•¹‹L‚ĢŠµs‚©‚ēA“Æ‹`Œź‚šŒź‚ĢŒn“‚ÉŠÖŒW‚Č‚­•¹‹L‚Č‚¢‚µ—…—ń‚·‚é‚ꂤ‚É‚Č‚Į‚½v‚Ę‚µA—p—į‚šƒAƒ‹ƒtƒ@ƒxƒbƒg‡‚É—ń‹“‚µ‚Ä‚Ø‚č•Ö—˜‚Å‚·B


posted by Īč —zˆź at 02:51 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2012”N12ŒŽ19“ś

‰¼’č–@‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹iSubjunctive Past Perfectj‚Ģ”­¶ŽžŠś


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‰¼’č–@‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹iSubjunctive Past Perfectj‚Ģ”­¶ŽžŠś‚É‚Ā‚¢‚āA‰Ķ‡–Īw‰p•¶–@ŠT˜_@•œ”Łxi–¾—Ļo”ŁA1988”NAp.469j‚ę‚č”õ–Y‚Ģ‚½‚ߏ‘‚«—Æ‚ß‚Ä‚Ø‚«‚Ü‚·B


Œ»”‚Ģ school grammar ‚ɉ—‚Ä Subjunctive Past Perfect ‚Ęāi‚·‚é‚ą‚ĢT form ‚Ķ Indicative ‚Ģ Past Perfect ‚Ę‘S‘R“ƈź‚Å‚ ‚éB
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Ÿ‚Ģ Subjunctive Past Perfect ‚Ķi’†—ŖjIndicative ‚ɉ—‚Æ‚é‚Ę“Æ—l‚ɁA‚n‚d‚É‚Ķ‘¶‚µ‚Č‚©‚Ā‚½‚ą‚Ģ‚ŁAearly ‚l‚d‚ɉ—‚Ä Subjunctive Preterite ‚ʁuŽžv‚Ģ™½•Ź‚š‚·‚邽‚߂ɉpŒź‚Éį¢¶‚µ‚½‚ą‚Ģ‚Å‚ ‚éB‘“‚ĢįcŽž–˜‚ĶŒ»”‚Ģ Subjunctive Preterite ‚Ęāi‚·‚é‚ą‚Ģ‚šˆČ‚Ā‚āAŸ‚Ģ Subjunctive Past Perfect ‚Ģ–š–Ś‚š‹Ī‚ß‚Ä‚¢‚½iŒć—Ŗj



posted by Īč —zˆź at 01:28 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2012”N11ŒŽ16“ś

•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚Ģu•s‹K‘„v‚ĢˆÓ–”


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Œ»‘ć‰pŒź‚É‚Ø‚¢‚āAwrite-wrote-written ‚Č‚Ē‚ĘŠˆ—p‚·‚é“®ŽŒ‚Ķ•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚ĘŒÄ‚Ī‚ź‚Ü‚·B

”‰ń‚Ķ‚±‚Ģu•s‹K‘„v‚ĢˆÓ–”‚š‰pŒźŽj“I‚ɍl‚¦‚Ä‚Ż‚½‚¢‚ĘŽv‚¢‚Ü‚·B

–

ŒĆ‰pŒźiOld English, 450-1100j‚Ģ“®ŽŒ‚Ķ‰ß‹ŽŒ`‚ʉߋŽ•ŖŽŒ‚Ģģ‚č•ū‚É‚ę‚Į‚Ä‘å‚«‚­‚SŽķ—Ž‚É•Ŗ—Ž‚³‚ź‚Ü‚·B

‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒAŽć•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒA‰ß‹ŽŒ»Ż“®ŽŒA•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚Ģ‚S‚Ā‚Å‚·B

Charles C. Fries, American English GrammariNew YorkFAppleton-Century-Crofts, 1940, pp.60-1j‚É‚ę‚ź‚ĪA

‚±‚Ģ‚¤‚æA‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚Ķ–ń300ŒĀ‚ ‚čAŽć•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚Ŗ“®ŽŒ‘S‘Ģ‚Ģ–ń‚R•Ŗ‚Ģ‚Q‚šč‚ß‚Ü‚·B

‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚Ę‚Ķ“®ŽŒ‚ĢŒźŠ²‚Ģ•ź‰¹‚š•Ļ‚¦‚邱‚Ę‚É‚ę‚Į‚ĉߋŽŒ`‚ʉߋŽ•ŖŽŒ‚šģ‚é‚ą‚Ģ‚Å‚ ‚čA

Žć•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚ĶŽ•Œs•Ā½‰¹imdn‚Ü‚½‚Ķmtnj‚Ģ“Y‰Į‚É‚ę‚éŒź”ö•Ļ‰»‚ʼnߋŽŒ`‚ʉߋŽ•ŖŽŒ‚šģ‚é‚ą‚Ģ‚Å‚·B

‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚Ģ•ź‰¹‚ĢŒš‘Ö‚Ģ‚³‚¹•ū‚ą‚V‚Ā‚Ģ—ŽŒ^‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚µ‚½‚©‚ēA

‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚ąŽć•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚ąA‚»‚ź‚¼‚ź‚»‚ź‚Č‚č‚É‹K‘„“I‚Č•Ļ‰»Œ`‚š‚ą‚Ā“®ŽŒ‚¾‚Į‚½‚Ģ‚Å‚·‚ĖB

i‚æ‚Č‚Ż‚ɁAŽc‚č‚Ģ­”‚Ŗ‰ß‹ŽŒ»Ż“®ŽŒ‚Ę•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚Å‚·B‰ß‹ŽŒ»Ż“®ŽŒ‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚Ģ–@•“®ŽŒ‚ɁA•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚Ģbe“®ŽŒ‚É‘Ī‰ž‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·Bj

–

‰pŒźŽj‚Ģ—¬‚ź‚É‚Ø‚¢‚āA‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚Ģ”¼”‹ß‚­‚Ŗ‚ā‚Ŗ‚ÄŽć•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚ɈŚs‚µAŽć•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚Ģ•Ļ‰»Œ`‚Ģģ‚č•ūim{-ednŒ^j‚ŖL‚­s‚ķ‚ź‚é‚ꂤ‚É‚Č‚č‚Ü‚µ‚½B

“Į‚ɁA’†‰pŒźiMiddle English, 1100-1500jŠś‚É‘å—Ź‚ĢŠO—ˆŒź‚Ŗ“ü‚čo‚·‚ĘŠO—ˆ‚Ģ“®ŽŒ‚Ģ•Ļ‰»‚Ķ‚½‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚±‚ĢŒ^‚ÅŠŌ‚ɍ‡‚ķ‚³‚ź‚Ü‚µ‚½B

‚»‚ń‚Č‚±‚Ę‚É‘£‚³‚źAŒ³—ˆ‚ĶŒĆ‰pŒź‚ĢŽć•Ļ‰»‚ĘŒÄ‚Ī‚ź‚½Œ^‚Ģ•Ļ‰»Œ`‚Ŗ‹­ŽŅ‚Ę‚Č‚čAŻ—ˆ‚Ģ•Ļ‰»Œ`‚ą‚±‚Ģ•Ļ‰»Œ`‚Ɉų‚«Šń‚¹‚ē‚źA“Ɖ»‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½B

Fries ‚ĢwćŒf‘x‚É‚ę‚ź‚ĪA

ŒĆ‰pŒźŠś‚É‚Ķ300ˆČć‚Ģ‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚µ‚½‚ŖA‚»‚Ģ‚¤‚æ–ń‚R•Ŗ‚Ģ‚P‚Ķ”p—p‚Ę‚Č‚čA–ń‚R•Ŗ‚Ģ‚P‚ĶŽć•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒi‹K‘„“®ŽŒj‚É•Ļ‚ķ‚čA–ń60‚Ģ‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚Ķ•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚Ę‚µ‚ÄŒ»‘ć‚܂Ő¶‚«Žc‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ę‚Ģ‚±‚Ę‚Å‚·B

‚Ā‚Ü‚čAŒĆ‰pŒź‚Ģ‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚ĶŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚Ģ•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚ɁAŽć•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒ‚Ķ‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚É‚»‚ź‚¼‚ź‘Ī‰ž‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ę‚¢‚¤‚ķ‚Æ‚Å‚·‚ĖB

‚µ‚½‚Ŗ‚Į‚āA‰pŒźŽj“I‚ÉŒ¾‚¦‚ĪA

‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚Ģu‹K‘„v‚Ę‚Ķ‘½””h‚É‚Č‚Į‚½•Ļ‰»Œ`‚Ę‚¢‚¤‚±‚Ę‚Å‚ ‚čA•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚Ģu•s‹K‘„v‚Ę‚ĶŒ³—ˆ‚Ķ‚»‚ź‚Č‚č‚É‹K‘„•Ļ‰»‚¾‚Į‚½‚»‚Ģ‘¼‚Ģƒ^ƒCƒv‚Ģ•Ļ‰»‚ĢŽc“}‚ŁA­””h‚Ę‚¢‚¤ˆÓ–”‚Å‚·B

“®ŽŒ‚ĢŠˆ—p•ūŽ®‚ą‚Ü‚½A‘¼‚Ģ•iŽŒ‚Ģź‡‚Ę“Æ‚¶‚­A‹K‘„‰»‚Ę‚¢‚¤‘å‚«‚Č—¬‚ź‚ɉˆ‚Į‚Ä•Ļ‰»‚µ‚Ä‚«‚Ü‚µ‚½B


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‚±‚Ģ‚ꂤ‚ɁAˆź‚Ā‚Ģ‹­—Ķ‚Č•Ļ‰»Œ`‚Ģƒ^ƒCƒv‚ɁA‘¼‚Ģƒ^ƒCƒv‚Ģ‚ą‚Ģ‚Ŗu‰E‚É•ķ‚¦v‚·‚錻Ū‚š—Ž„ianalogyj‚ĘŒÄ‚Ń‚Ü‚·B

”“ś‚Å‚ąŽq‚Ē‚ą‚Ŗ He went there. ‚ĘŒ¾‚¤‚ׂ«‚Ę‚±‚ė‚É *goed ‚šŽg‚¤‚Ę‚«‚ÉŠ“‚¶‚ē‚ź‚錻Ū‚Å‚·B

‚»‚µ‚Ä‚±‚Ģ—Ž„Œ»Ū‚ĶAˆź”Ź“I‚ÉŽg—p•p“x‚Ģ­‚Č‚¢‚ą‚Ģ‚É‹N‚±‚č‚ā‚·‚­Aā‚¦‚øŽg‚ķ‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚é‚ą‚Ģ‚É‚Ķ‹N‚±‚č‚É‚­‚¢‚ĘŒ¾‚¦‚Ü‚·B

•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ‚É“śķŒź‚Ŗ‘½‚¢‚Ģ‚Ķˆź‚Ā‚É‚Ķ‚»‚Ģ‚½‚ß‚Å‚·B

“śķ•p”É‚É—p‚¢‚ē‚ź‚邽‚߁A‚ę‚­e‚µ‚Ü‚źA‚¢‚ķ‚ĪŖ‚Ģ¶‚¦‚½‚ꂤ‚É’č’…‚µA—eˆÕ‚É‚Ķ‘ć‘Ö‚³‚ź‚Č‚¢‘¶Ż‚É‚Č‚Į‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ģ‚Å‚·B

‚»‚ń‚Č‚±‚ń‚Č‚ÅA“ƈź‰»‚ĢŒXŒü‚É—¬‚³‚ź‚ø‚ɍ”“ś‚܂Ő¶‚«Žc‚Į‚Ä‚«‚½‚ʍl‚¦‚ē‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B


i’Ē‹L‚Pj

think, bring, buy, seek ‚Č‚Ē‚ą”‚Å‚±‚»•s‹K‘„“®ŽŒ•\‚É“ü‚ź‚ē‚ź‚ÄŽ«‘‚ĢŠŖ––‚É‚Ā‚Æ‚ē‚ź‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·‚ŖA‚¢‚ø‚ź‚ąŒĆ‰pŒźŽž‘ć‚É‚ĶŽć•Ļ‰»‘ęˆźƒNƒ‰ƒX‚Ģ•ĻŽķ‚Ę‚µ‚Ä•Ŗ—Ž‚³‚ź‚Ä‚Ø‚čAŒ³—ˆ‚Ķ‚»‚ź‚Č‚č‚É‹K‘„“I‚Č‚ą‚Ģ‚Å‚µ‚½B“Į‚ÉŒĆ‰pŒź‚É‚Ø‚Æ‚éŽć•Ļ‰»‚ĶAŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚Ģ‹K‘„•Ļ‰»‚ĢŠī‚É‚Č‚é‚Ģ‚Å‚µ‚½‚©‚ēAŠˆ—p‚É‘Ī‚·‚é‹K‘„«‚Ŗ”‚Å‚ą”F‚ß‚ē‚ź‚é‚Ģ‚ąA“–‘R‚ĘŒ¾‚¦‚Ī“–‘R‚ĘŒ¾‚¦‚é‚Å‚µ‚傤B


i’Ē‹L‚Qj

–{‹LŽ–‚ĢŽ·•M‚É‚ ‚½‚čˆČ‰ŗ‚Ģ•¶Œ£‚šŽQĘ‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½B

Charles C. Fries, American English GrammariNew YorkFAppleton-Century-Crofts, 1940j
Žs‰ĶŽOŠģwŒĆ‘ć’†¢‰pŒź‰•ąxiŒ¤‹†ŽŠA1963”Nj
‰F‰źŽ”³•üw‰pŒźŽjxiŠJ‘ńŽŠA2000”Nj
‰F²Œ©–M—YwŒĆ‰pŒź•¶–@Œ¤‹†xiŠwK‰@‘åŠwA1992”Nj
‰ŗ£ŽOē˜Y ŒĆ‰źˆņ—m ˆÉ“”O”VwŒĆ‰pŒź“ü–åx(‘åŠw‘—сA1990”N)
‹“–{Œ÷w‰pŒźŽj“ü–åxiŒcœä‹`mo”ʼnļA2005”Nj
“n•”øˆźw‰pŒź‚Ģ—šŽjxi‘åCŠŁ‘“XA1983”Nj


i’Ē‹L‚Rj

ŒSŽi—˜’jwƒAƒ_ƒ€‚Ģ‚Ö‚»xi‹ĖŒ“‘“XA1984”NApp.111-2j‚ę‚čˆų‚«‚Ü‚·B

‚¢‚ø‚ź‚Ģ¢‘ć‚É‚ąŽįŽŅ‚ĢŽž‘ć‚Ŗ‚ ‚čA‚±‚Ę‚Ī‚Ŗ•Ļ‰»‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­Œ_‹@‚Ģ‘½‚­‚ĶŽįŽŅ‚É‚ ‚éA‚ĘŒ¾‚Į‚Ä‚ę‚¢‚Å‚ ‚ė‚¤B‚½‚¾‚µAŽįŽŅ‚Ģ‚±‚Ę‚Ī‚Ŗ‚·‚ׂāA‚»‚ĢŒ¾Œź‚ɐ³“–‚Č’nˆŹ‚š—^‚¦‚ē‚ź‚é‚Ę‚Ķ‚©‚¬‚ē‚Č‚¢B‘½‚­‚Ķˆź‰ß«‚ĢˆŁŒ`‚ɏI‚ķ‚Į‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤B‰pE•Ä‚ĢŽq‹Ÿ‚Ģ‘½‚­‚ŖAŠO‚Å‚Æ‚ń‚©‚š‚µ‚Ä‹A‚Į‚Ä‚­‚é‚ʁA‚Ķ‚¶‚ß‚Ķ fighti‚Æ‚ń‚©‚·‚éj‚Ģ‰ß‹ŽŒ`‚Ę‚µ‚Ä fighted ‚šŒū‚É‚·‚é‚ŖA‚½‚æ‚Ē‚±‚ė‚É•źe‚É fought ‚Ę’ł³‚³‚ź‚éB‚±‚ĢŒź‚Ķ”äŠr“I•p“x‚Ŗ‚‚¢‚©‚ēA‚Ü‚¾—Ž„‚Ģ—Ķ‚ɍR‚µ‚Ä‹­•Ļ‰»k•s‹K‘„l“®ŽŒ‚Ģ‚Ü‚Ü‚Å‚ ‚é‚ŖA‰pŒź‚Ģ—šŽj‚ĶˆźŠŃ‚µ‚Ä‹­•Ļ‰»“®ŽŒĮ–Å‚Ģ—šŽj‚Å‚ ‚éB

‰pE•Ä‚ĢŽq‹Ÿ‚Ŗ‚Ķ‚¶‚ß fighted ‚šŒū‚É‚·‚é‚Ģ‚ŖAŒ»‘ć‰pŒź‚Ģ‚Ł‚Ę‚ń‚Ē‚Ģ“®ŽŒ‚ŖŽć•Ļ‰»i -ed ‚š‚Ā‚Æ‚éj‚Å‚ ‚é‚Ę‚±‚ė‚©‚ē‚­‚é—Ž„‚Å‚ ‚čAŽq‹Ÿ‚½‚æ‚É‚Č‚É‚©•Ļ‰»‚š‹‚ß‚éˆÓ}‚Ŗ‚ ‚é‚ķ‚Æ‚Å‚Ķ‚Č‚¢B



i’Ē‹L‚Sj

’†“‡•¶—Y •Ņw‰p•¶–@Ž«“Txi‰Ķo‘–[A1955”Nj‚Ķ conjugation ‚Ģ€ipp.99-104j‚É‚ąŚq‚Ŗ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚·B



posted by Īč —zˆź at 05:34 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

2012”N10ŒŽ07“ś

as you like it


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‰pŒź‚Ģ as you like it ‚Ę‚¢‚¤Œ¾‚¢•ū‚šAƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒź‚Ģ s'il vous plaît ‚āƒhƒCƒcŒź‚Ģ wenn es Ihnen gefällt ‚Ę”äŠr‚µ‚Č‚Ŗ‚ē‰pŒźŽj“I‚ɐą–¾‚µ‚½‚¢‚ĘŽv‚¢‚Ü‚·B

ć—į‚É‚Ø‚Æ‚éƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒXŒź‚Ģ plaîtiƒplairejAƒhƒCƒcŒź‚Ģ gefälltiƒgefallenj‚Ę‚¢‚¤“®ŽŒ‚Ķ‚Ę‚ą‚É—^ŠiŽx”z‚Łu‹C‚É“ü‚év‚ĢˆÓ–”‚Å‚ ‚čAvous, Ihnen ‚Ķ—¼ŽŅ‚Ę‚ą—^Ši‚Łu‚ ‚Č‚½‚É‚Ę‚Į‚āv‚ĢˆÓ–”‚Å‚·B

‚»‚µ‚ĉpŒź‚Ģ like ‚Ę‚¢‚¤“®ŽŒ‚ąAŒ³—ˆ‚Ķ pleasei‹C‚É“ü‚éj‚ĢˆÓ–”‚Å—^ŠiŽx”z‚Å‚ ‚čAu‰½X‚šD‚Žv‚Ę‚¢‚¤‘ĪŠiŽx”z‚Å‚Ķ‚ ‚č‚Ü‚¹‚ń‚Å‚µ‚½B

‚Ā‚Ü‚čAas you like it ‚Ķ as it like youi‚ ‚Č‚½‚É‚Ę‚Į‚Ä‹C‚É“ü‚é‚ꂤ‚Ɂj‚Ę‚¢‚¤‚Ģ‚Ŗ–{—ˆ‚ĢŒź‡‚Č‚Ģ‚Å‚µ‚½B

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posted by Īč —zˆź at 19:25 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

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posted by Īč —zˆź at 07:07 | Comment(2) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

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posted by Īč —zˆź at 22:19 | Comment(2) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

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posted by Īč —zˆź at 21:41 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é

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That acute and incisive critic George Saintsbury, who was not given to exaggerate, spoke well when he declared (in his History of Elizabethan Literture) that ... The plays of Shakespeare and the English Bible are, and ever will be, the twin monuments not merely of their own period, but of the perfection of English,....


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posted by Īč —zˆź at 11:10 | Comment(0) | ‰pŒźŽj“I‚Ȑą–¾ | XVī•ń‚šƒ`ƒFƒbƒN‚·‚é
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