2016年08月01日

伝統文法とその有用性について


NKJ52_nanohana500-thumb-260xauto-2724.jpg



伝統文法とその有用性について、N. F. Blake, Traditional English Grammar and Beyond(Palgrave Macmillan, 1988)より備忘のため書き留めておきます。


'They was watching the telly.' If in a novel you came across a character who spoke like this, you are likely to make certain assumptions about his social standing, because the sentence will be interpreted as an example of incorrect English or, if you prefer, of bad grammar.(p.1)

All languages exhibit similar variations in usage which have arisen from social and regional factors, and usually one of the variant forms is singled out as the accepted usage for literary and other purposes. This form then gains social prestige at the expense of other varieties. In England this variety, often referred to as standard English or as the Queen's English, is associated with educational attainment, and that is why speakers who do not conform to this variety in their usage run the risk of being considered poorly educated. In some cases people who fail to observe this standard may find that it affects their career prospects, for some employers still take the view that they should not employ a person who, in their opinion, cannot speak or write properly.(p.1)

The interpretation of what constitutes good or bad English usually follows certain rules which are associated with traditional grammar. This is the methodology and approach whose origins can be traced back to the classical period and which was almost universally taught in England until well into the twentieth century.(p.1)

It is worth considering in more detail some of the charges which have been levelled against traditional grammar. The best-known one is that it is prescriptive − that is, it contains rules for what is correct or incorrect in the language and it lays down rules of usage which speakers of the language must follow.(p.2)

Traditional grammar is a method by which it is possible to break the language down into smaller parts so that the makeup of the language can be studied.(p.3)

So much of the language which we use is in a written form, to say nothing of the whole range of English literature, for which some kind of grammatical methodology is needed. It may well be(中略)that speech is the primary form of communication and that writing is developed from it; but that should not prevent full attention from being given to the written form.(p.4)

Many modern grammars are not, in any case, as objective as modern linguists like to pretend, for the corpus of material on which they base their analysis may not contain examples of everything they want. They may have to make statements without any evidence for them. They also place an asterisk against those expressions which they consider unacceptable in English. This asterisk fulfills the same function as those rules which state that certain constructions are incorrect. This practice inevitably sets up the expectation that some things are correct and others incorrect, and it also raises the question of what basis there is for claiming that a particular utterance is incorrect and so deserves an asterisk. Often the reason is either that a given form does not occur in the corpus of material or that the grammarian accepts intuitively that the usage is incorrect. Even if a form which the grammarian regards as incorrect occurs in the material he is using, he may still mark it with an asterisk and treat it as a mistake onthe part of the speaker or writer. In other words, where traditional grammarians used Latin or logic to support their claims, modern linguists use their intuition. It is not self-evident that the one is more reliable than the other.(p.5)

... traditional grammar has a well-established terminology which it was natural that modern gramarians should build on in their own work.(p.12)

... even today a speaker of English needs to be familiar with traditional grammar if he wishes to make sense of any dictionary or the most comprehensive grammar of the language.(p.13)

Traditional grammar is not something that has been discarded even if some of the views we associate with it, such as prescription, are now unfashionable. It still so much to offer,....(p.13)

It remains important for all speakers of the language to be familiar with at least one grammatical methodology if they want to know something about their language and how to use it. Traditional grammar remains the most accessible one and it is still the best to begin with. It can serve as the foundation for study into more advanced types of grammar.(p.13)


posted by 石崎 陽一 at 00:52 | Comment(0) | 文法の学習・指導 | 更新情報をチェックする
この記事へのコメント
コメントを書く
お名前: [必須入力]

メールアドレス:

ホームページアドレス:

コメント:

認証コード: [必須入力]


※画像の中の文字を半角で入力してください。
※ブログオーナーが承認したコメントのみ表示されます。
ページトップへ戻る